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Топик Family (семья)

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FAMILY
SPEECH PATTERNS
Greetings
Good morning! (до 12 часов дня)
Good afternoon! (до заката солнца)
Good evening! (после заката солнца).
Hi!
Hello there!
Hello everybody!
How are you?
Fine, thanks.
I’m well, thank you.
Not too bad. Not so bad.
Making acquaintance How do you do? - How do you do? Henry, this is my colleague Olga Petrova.- Генри, это моя коллега Ольга Петрова.
Hello, Olga, it’s nice to meet you. – Привет, Ольга, приятно познакомится.
Hello, Henry, how are you? – Привет, Генри, как поживаешь?

Exercise 1: Define the interlocutors : а)two business men; b)two friends (men); c)a teacher and a pupil; d)a mother and a son; е)two friends (women); f) a secretary and a client.
1. A: Hi! How are you? 2. A: Good morning, Mrs. Brown.
B: Fine, thanks, and you? B: Good morning, Bill. 3. A: Hello, John. How are things? 4. A: Good afternoon. B: Oh, hello, Henry. Im okay. B: Good afternoon, sir. Can I help you? 5. A: Mary! B: Oh, hello, Ann. How are you? A: Fine, thanks. And how is Peter? 6. A: Good morning, Mr. Canning. Weve met in Paris. Im Harold Smith. B: Good morning, Mr. Smith. Nice to meet you again. How are you? Exercise 2. Say if the situation is official or inofficial 1. A: How do you do? Let me introduce myself. My name is John Harrison. I work for Sonders Electronics. B: How do you do, Mr. Harrison? Its nice to meet you. 2. A: Bill, this is Helen Johnson. She is here to continue her studies at Moscow University. B: Hello, Helen, pleased to meet you. C: Pleased to meet you, too. 3. A: Margaret, you havent met Susan Davidson, have you? B: No, not yet. Hello, Miss Davidson, nice to meet you. C: Hello, nice to meet you, too. 4. A: Mr. Brown, Id like to introduce Felicity OConnor, our business partner. B: How do you do, Im very pleased to meet you. C: Im pleased to meet you, too, Mr. Brown. 5. A: Hi, Im Bob Addison. B: Hi, my name is Lucy Smith, how are you? 6. A: Hello, Bill, meet my sister Ann. She has come here for holidays. B: Hi. Ann, nice to meet you. C: Nice to meet you too. My brother has told me about you. 7. A: Charles, Id like you to meet Rick Fraser, from London University. B: How do you do? Please, call me Rick. C: Pleased to meet you, Rick, Im Charles Carter. 8. A: You must be Susan Johnson. B: Thats right. 9. A: Hello, Im Terry Smith, Im pleased to meet you. B: Pleased to meet you, too. Exercise 3. Match the columns 1. Hello, my name is Peter. a) How do you do, Mr. Harrison. 2. Let me introduce myself, Im John Harrison. b) No, hello, Donald. Nice to meet you 3. Its very nice to meet you. c ) Glad to meet you, Peter. Im Tom. 4. What do you think of life in Russia? d ) Its nice to meet you, too. 5. James, have you met Donald? e) Its a delightful country. Exercise 4. Make up short dialogues of your own. ACTIVE VOCABULARY Nouns NAME - имя, полное имя человека
first name - имя
middle name (patronymic) - отчество
last name(surname) - фамилия
full name - полное имя
FAMILY RELATIONS: relations by birth (кровные родственники):
parents - родители
a father - отец
a mother - мать
a son - сын
a daughter - дочь
a sister - сестра
a brother - брат
grandparents - бабушки и дедушки
a grandfather - дедушка
a grandmother - бабушка
grandchildren - внуки
a grandson - внук
a granddaughter - внучка
an aunt - тетя
an uncle - дядя
a niece - племянница
a nephew - племянник
a cousin - кузен/кузина, двоюродный брат/двоюродная сестра
RELATIONS BY LAW (родственники, появляющиеся после замужества/женитьбы, или других официальных гражданских актов):
родственники со стороны мужа или жены:
a mother-in-law - теща, свекровь
a father-in-law - тесть, свекор
a son-in-law - зять
a daughter-in-law - невестка
a sister-in-law - невестка (как сестра), золовка
a brother-in-law - зять (как брат), деверь
a husband - муж
a wife - жена
A stepmother - мачеха
a stepfather - отчим
a stepson - пасынок
a stepdaughter - падчерица
a stepchild - пасынок или падчерица
a stepsister - сводная сестра
a stepbrother - cводный брат.
an adoption - усыновление или удочерение
an adoptee (an adopted son, an adopted daughter) - приемыш, усыновленный или удочеренный
a foster-father - приемный отец
a foster-mother - приемная мать
an orphan - сирота.
Other nouns:
at the age of - в возрасте
a school-leaver - выпускник школы
a first-year student - первокурсник
retired pensioners - пенсионеры
Verbs and phrases with verbs
to adopt - усыновлять или удочерять
to be born - рождаться
to be 17 (years old) - быть 17 лет
to be in their 50ies - быть около 50
to be 5 years older (younger) than - быть на 5 лет старше (моложе) чем
to get married = to marry - выходить замуж,жениться
to be married - быть замужем, быть женатым
to divorce - разводиться
to be single - быть не замужем, неженатым
to be an only child - быть единственным ребенком
to be in the 10th form(grade) - учиться в 10 классе.
to leave school - заканчивать школу
to take exams - принимать участие в сдаче экзаменов
to pass exams - сдать экзамены
to fail the exams - провалиться на экзаменах
to go to the university - учиться в университете
to enter the university - поступить в университет
to live with a family - жить с семьей
to rent a room - снимать комнату
to live in a hostel (a hall of residence) - жить в общежитии
to earn one’s living - зарабатывать на жизнь
to be a housewife - быть домохозяйкой
to keep the house - вести хозяйство
to look after children - приглядывать за детьми
to be smb’s senior or junior - быть старше или моложе кого-то
to be going to do something - собираться что-то сделать
we are three in the family - в семье нас трое
PHONETIC EXERCISES.
Exercise 1. Read the following words paying attention to the way of pronunciation of the stressed vowels.
/ә:/ first, work, girl, her
/I/sister, live, his, busy, begin, different, quickly, middle /a:/ large, marks, department /ju:/ new, music, pupil, newspaper, few, beauty, amusing /e/ ready, collect, help, well, very, friend, best, fellow, respect, /i:/ need, indeed, keep /ei/ shake, make, hazel, statement /o/ not, proverb, blond, constantly, hobby Exercise 2. Read the words paying attention to the way of pronunciation of the consonants or combinations of consonants. /ks/ expect, except, exception /w/ work, we, well, want, watch, wife LEXICAL EXERCISES Exercise 1 Form the nouns from the verbs using the suffix er to teach, to work, to collect, to dance, to sing, to manage, to lead, to write Exercise 2. Form the antonyms using negative prefixes un-, mis-, dis-. Like, understand, kind, usual, pleasant, interesting, happy Exercise 3. Form the adverbs from the adjectives using the suffix -ly. Usual, unusual, quick, easy, angry, slow, real Exercise 4. Match antonyms. kind, like, short, beautiful, usual, blond, wide-opened, understand narrow-opened, misunderstand, ugly, tall, hate, unusual, dark, cruel Text 1 Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. MY FAMILY I'm Peter Kovalyov. I am fifteen. I'd like to tell you about my family. We are a family of three. I live with my parents. But I've got an elder brother. He is married and has a family of his own. In my opinion, family is an emotional centre of a person's life, transmitter of culture, the place where children are being raised. The process of upbringing children is difficult. It requires much effort, mutual respect, tolerance. In happy families parents are frankly honest with their children without moralizing, and the children in their turn learn how to get on with other people. The proverb says, "Men make houses, women make homes". In my view, it means that the man provides for his family, pays attention to the problems of the members of the family. And the woman creates the homely atmosphere, encourages her husband and children to keep up family traditions and keeps the house. Together they bring up their children in the right way. It is true to our family, I think. My parents have been married for twenty-six years. My father's name is Vitaly. He is 45 years old. He is an engineer at a Motor Plant. He is tall and strong both in body and character, but rather stout. He has a plump oval face with an aquiline nose. He's generous and full of joy, but very careless. He can make different things with his own hands. Almost all the bookshelves in our flat were made by my father. My mother's name is Irina. She is a medium-sized woman .She has got a thin oval attractive face and light grey eyes. When she was young she had thick curly ash-blond long hair, now she wears her hair short. My mother is a woman of character, tactful and fair. She's warm-hearted and at the same time practical, reserved and full of common sense. She is a house-wife; she does all the housework and helps my elder brother to bring up his sons. She is really concerned about them. They are the apple of her eye. And the boys feel affection for their Granny. My father and I try to help her about the house. My brother Igor is about 25. He is married, as I have already said. He has got two sons. My elder nephew is a spitting image of my brother and a junior one takes after his mother, my brother's wife. The boys are funny and curious. We have got a lot of relatives, because my mother has got five sisters and a brother. So I've got many aunts, uncles and cousins. We are all on friendly terms. Exercise 2. Answer the questions: 1. What is a family according to Peters opinion? 2. Do you agree with him? Exercise 3. Speak about the members of this family according to the plan. the name, 2. the age, 3. appearance 4, character 5. occupation Text 2 Exercise 1. Look through the text and do the task given below it. I live in Moscow, in Lenin Street, house number 6 flat 12. My family is not very large. We are 5 in the family: my father, my mother, my sister, my grandmother and me. We all live together in a new flat in one of the industrial districts of Moscow. We occupy four rooms in the flat on the first floor. My father Ivan Ivanovich is 43 years old. He works at an automobile plant as an engineer. He is a very busy man. He likes his work and spends most of his time here. When he is at home he is always ready to help his wife about the house. His hobby is collecting stamps. My mother Olga Viktorovna is a pleasant-looking woman. She is a teacher of music and plays the piano well. She is forty. My mother always has a lot of work to do about the house and at school. She is a busy woman and we all help her. By character my father is a calm man, while my mother is energetic and talkative. My sister's name is Alla. Like her mother Alla has blue eyes and fair hair. She is a very good-looking girl. Alla is three years younger than me. She is a pupil of the 9th form. She does well at school and gets only good and excellent marks. Literature is her favorite subject and she wants to become a teacher, the same as me. My name is Alexander. This year I have left school and become an applicant for entry to Moscow State University, Philological Department. If I fail my exams I'll be very upset, but next year I'll try to enter the University again. My grandmother does not work, she is 68. She is retired. Our family is very united. We like spending time together. In the evening we like watching TV, reading books and newspapers, listening to music or just talking about the events of the day. I also have many other relatives: uncles, aunts, cousins. Exercise 2. Choose the words which will help you to describe mans appearance, character, occupation. Engineer, busy, collecting, calm, pleasant-looking, energetic, reading, talkative, dancing, going in for sport, blue, favorite, occupation, fair, teacher, dark, young, tall, watching TV. Exercise 3. Give the situations in which these words are used (see the text). Text 3 MY BIOGRAPHY Exercise 1. Read the text pay attention to the facts of Sashas biography. My name is Alexander, Sasha for short. My middle name is Ivanovich. My surname is Petrov. I am 16 (years old). I live in Moscow. I was born on the 20th of November 1978 in Moscow. My father is a doctor, he works at a hospital. My mother is a scientific secretary of Nature Conservation society. She has much work to do about the house too. We are five in the family. I have a younger sister and brother. They are both pupils. Alla is in the fifth form and Boris is a pupil of the ninth form. Our family is very united. In June I left school №888 in Moscow. I always did well at school and learned with great interest. I also took an active part in social life, attended sport clubs and subject circles.
My favorite subject at school was Literature. My teacher of Literature was a well-educated man with broad outlook and deep knowledge of the subject. He taught us to understand Russian classics, the language and style. He acquainted us with modern authors, helped to understand modern history and life better. He also encouraged me in my desire to become a teacher of Literature. Exercise 2. Render the text in turn (a sentence for each student ). Text 4 POPOVS FAMILY Exercise 1. Read the text, write down the plan of the text, get ready to render the text according to your plan. We are a large and friendly family. There are six of us: grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, my younger sister and I. I have an elder sister, too, she is 22 years old, but she doesnt live with us. She is married. She has got a little family of her own: a husband and a son, my nephew. Our grandfather is a scientist. He is on the wrong side of sixty, but he does not want to retire. Our grandmother is retired. She was a teacher and worked at school. She keeps house. Of course we help her about the house. Father is a doctor. He works at a large hospital. Mother is an economist and she works at a bank. Both our parents are very busy. My sister and I go to school. We spend most of the afternoons doing our homework. At the weekends we are not so busy as on week days, and we can relax: visit or receive relatives. Sometimes we are sitting in our large and comfortable living room, talking, discussing our everyday affairs drinking tea. Text 5 ANDREWS FAMILY Exercise 1. Read the text get ready to answer the questions. I enjoy the honest and open relationship in my family - but I think discipline must be used when necessary. Theres never been a division between us, the children, and them, our parents. Freedom has made us close. I knew a girl whose parents were very strict and it made her a liar. There is a proverb: When children stand still they have done some ill. I wouldnt do anything to upset my parents. My mother and my father are very different people. Mum is always very calm; not exactly easy-going, because she does take things very seriously sometimes, but she doesnt get excited. When we were small (my brother and me) she almost never shouted at us. When we did something wrong she talked with us about it very firmly but in a calm tone of voice. If we shouted and cried she made us go and sit in her room until we calmed down. So when the news came, she reacted in her usual way, quietly seeing what she could do to prepare for changes that were coming. Dad, on the other hand, shouted, kicked a chair, and went for a long walk to try to cool off. During the next few days he was cross with us a lot of time that upset us, as nothing was our fault. Both of us kids were worried about what was going to happen, and a bit afraid, but we didnt talk with our parents much. Most of all we were worried about having to leave all our school friends. Exercise 2. Answer the questions: 1. What were the relations between the members of the family? 2. What are the relations in your family? 3. What were the punishments in the family? 4. Do you think that the punishments are necessary? Text 6 ALEXS FAMILY Exercise 1. Read the text and draw the family tree. The Simons are a large family. There are four generations of Simons today. The oldest person in Alexs family is his grandfather, Mr. Frank Simon. He is 78 and he is still full of life and energy. His wife is 5 years younger than him. David and Karen Clark are Alexs uncle and aunt. Karen is 48 years old but she looks 10 years younger than she is. She is a rather talented actress. David, her husband, is a film director. Alexs parents are in their fifties. His father is a bank manager. In Alexs opinion his fathers best point is his good sense of humor. Alexs mother is a nurse. She works with her son-in-law in a Medical Center on the outskirts of Bristol. Alexs first cousin is a pilot. His name is Michael. Though Alex is six years younger than him, they are very close. In fact, they are best friends. Michaels wife is a house wife. She keeps house and takes care of her daughter, Alexs niece. Alexs second cousin is studying biology. Now she is at the University of London in her last year. She isnt married yet as she thinks that education is more important for her now than family life. Pamela is very serious and industrious. She is fond of animals and at home. Shes got three pets: two dogs and a cat. Alexs sisters are very talented. His elder sister Lis is keen on languages. Lis is 26 and she isnt married yet: she is too independent. She lives in a small house not far from her parents in the same neigborhood. Her sister Rachel, who is 2 years younger than her, is not like Lis at all. Theres quite a difference between Lis and Rachel but they look very much alike. Alexs nephew Patric is a schoolboy. Like most of his friends he is crasy about cartoons and computer games. He is good at most subjects at school, near the top of the class, except in Mathematics. Patric is a good boy but he can be very naughty at times. This is the entire family. They are all friendly, nice and very interesting people. Text 7 MY FRIEND Exercise 1. Read the text and do the exercises. To begin with, a man can have different friends. The English say that the mans best friend is his dog. Sometimes we say that books are our best friends. I know a few people for whom books are the best and the only friends. I think I am not a person who makes friends too quickly or too easily. I fully agree that the old friend is better than the two new ones. I am loyal to the friends I make and I expect the same loyalty in turn. It takes a lot to shake my trust in my friends, but equally it takes me a long time to get over it if that trust is shaken. I should like to stress that a real friend is not only a playfellow or a helpmate. As the proverb puts it, a friend in need is a friend indeed. To my mind, a friend is a person dear to you, whom you trust and respect. It is said that the way to have a friend is to be one. In my opinion, it is a just statement. I am lucky to have got such a friend as Helen. I made friends with her in the kindergarten and our friendship has been lasting since. At first I should like to tell you a few words about Helens appearance. She is a very good-looking girl, with beautiful blond hair which she usually wears parted in the middle. Her bright wide-opened hazel eyes add to her attraction. You need just to have a look at her to understand that she is a kind, sincere and open-hearted. She is lively, amusing and always interesting. She is constantly the centre of attention, but she is sufficiently well-balanced not to let it go to her head. If she promises something she always keeps her word. I am sure she will never let me down. We have many common interests. We both like reading books, going to the theatre, playing badminton. We both dream to become physicians. Moreover, our tastes do not differ; in fact they are the same. Lena often helps me with my maths as she does better than me at school. She is very good at all the school subjects but Physics, and I am glad I can help her to solve the problems. Sometimes she is too quick to get angry and too slow to cool down. When she loses her temper, it is better to keep away from her. In fact any person has certain drawbacks, and neither she nor I are the exceptions from this general rule. But we do our best not to permit them to interfere with our friendship which I hope will last forever. Exercise 2. Make up word combinations with the words: eyes, hair, a friend. Use the following words: real, blond, new, wide-opened, best, hazel, blue, old, dark, strait, curly, kind. Exercise 3. Fill in the prepositions. 1) To begin_____. 2) I am loyal____the friends 3) I expect the same loyalty___turn. 4)It takes me a lot of time to get____ it. 5) A friend___need is a friend indeed. 6)___my opinion. 7) I made friend___her. 8) She is a very good-lookihg girl___blond hair. 9) She is the centre___attention. 10) She will never let me___ . 11) We both like going___ the theatre. 12) She helps me___Maths. 13) She does better than me___ school. 14) She is good___all subjects. Exercise 4. Find in the text the words and word combinations which will help you to describe mans character, appearance and his favorite occupation. Exercise 5. Translate into English. Лучший друг, единственный друг, подружиться, слишком быстро и легко; старый друг лучше новых двух; мне требуется много времени чтобы…;я бы хотел подчеркнуть; доверять и уважать; по моему мнению; сначала я бы хотел; всегда держит своё слово; хорошо успевать в школе.
Exercise 6. Write down a plan of the text.
Exercise 7. Render the text according to the plan.
Exercise 8. Topics for discussion:
1. What kind of people do you consider to be attractive?
2. A real friend, who is it? Text 8 Exercise 1. Read the dialogue, pay attention to the usage of the underlined words and expressions. Translate the dialogue. Kate: Hello, Ann! Ann: Hello, Kate. Haven't seen you for ages. Meet my fellow student Lena. Kate: How do you do! Glad to meet you, Lena. Are you from St. Petersburg? Lena: No, I'm from Moscow. My family lives there now. Kate: Do you live in the hall of residence or rent a room? Lena: Neither. I live at my sister's. She has a nice three-room flat not far from the center of the city Kate: You are lucky. Is your sister married? Lena: Oh, yes. She is married and has got a daughter already. Kate: What is her husband? Lena: He is a manager. Kate: And is your sister also a manager? Lena: Oh, no, she is a teacher of English. Kate: Is she fond of her job? Lena: I suppose, she is. She is fond of children and is very good at handling them. And are you fond of St.Petersburg, Kate? Kate: Yes, I am. All my family lives in St. Petersburg. Lena: And is it a large family? Kate: Rather. We are five: my parents, a grandmother, my younger brother and me. Lena: Does your grandmother work? Kate: No, she is a retired pensioner. She is over sixty. But she does a lot of housework. Lena: Is your brother still at school? Kate: Yes, he is. He is leaving school this year. He is seventeen. Lena: What is he going to be? Kate: His dream is to be an actor. He is a great theatre-lover. Exercise 2. Fill in the missed expressions. Mary: Hello, Nick! Nick: ____, Marry! I____________for ages! ______________student Peter. Marry: ________! Glad _____,Peter. Peter: How_____! I_____Moscow. My family lives there now. Mary: Do you live in__________ or ____ a room? Peter:_______. I live at________. She has got a flat not_________ the university. Mary: You are lucky. Is your sister_____? Peter: Oh, yes. She is______. She_______ a son. Mary: ___ is her husband? Peter: He is a doctor. Mary: And _____ is your sister? Peter: She is a teacher. She is_____of children. She is good __ ____ them. Mary, do you live with your family? Mary: Yes. We have___ a cottage not_______ the city. Peter: Is your family_____? Mary: Yes, it is. We___5: my parents, a grandfather, my younger sister and me. Peter: Does your grandfather work? Mary: No, he is _______. He is____60. Peter: Is your sister still at____? Marry:Yes. She is_______school this year. Peter: What is she_______to be? Mary: Her dream is to be an ecologist. She is a great nature-lover. Exercise 3. Make up your own dialogue. Text 9 RUSSIAN FAMILY. Exercise 1. Listen to the text and choose if the statement is true or false. Pay attention to the notes which will be helpful to you.
Notes:
descendants - потомки
end in divorce-заканчиваться разводом
to remarry-жениться еще раз
to rely on the assistance- полагаться на помощь
experience - опыт
revival - возрождение
restoration -восстановление
existence - существование
1 A lot of Russian families have traditions?
2. A group of people who have the same name is not yet a family.
3. More than 30 out of every 100 marriages end in divorce. 4. All divorcees remarry. 5. Men remarry more often than women. 6. Young families dont depend on their parents. 7. Because of living with parents young couples have no experience in family life. 8. There are 4 hows that young families dont know. 9. The revival of the family should start with the observing of its traditions. Text 10 FAMILY LIFE Exercise 1. Read the text and get ready to answer the questions NOTES: tolerant-терпимый
majority -большинство
to involve - впутывать
to bring up -воспитывать
leisure facilities -возможности, условия для отдыха
The English are a nation of stay-at-home. "There is no place like home" they say. And when the man is not working he is at home in the company of his wife and children and busies himself with the affairs of the home. "The Englishman's home is his castle," is a saying known all over the world. And its true. A "typical" British family used to consist of mother, father and two children. But in recent years there have been many changes in family life. Some of these have been caused by new laws and others are the result of changes in the society. For example, since the law made it easier to get a divorce, the number of divorces has increased. In fact one marriage in every three now ends in divorce. This means that there are a lot of one-parent families. Society is now more tolerant than it used to be of unmarried people, unmarried couples and single parents. Another change has been caused by the fact that people are living longer nowadays, and many old people live alone following the death of their partners. As a result of these changes in the pattern of people's lives, there are a lot of households which consist of only one person or one person and children. You might think that marriage and the family are not as popular as they once were. However, the majority of divorced people marry again, and they sometimes take responsibility for a second family. Members of a family - grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins - keep in touch, but they see less of each other than they used to. This is because people often move away from their home town to work, and so the family becomes scattered. Christmas is the traditional season for reunions. Although the family group is smaller nowadays than it used to be, relatives often travel a lot of miles in order to spend the holiday together. In general, each generation is keen to become independent of parents in establishing its own family unit, and this fact can lead to social as well as geographical differences within a larger family group. Relationships within the family are different now. Parents treat their children more as equals than they used to, and children have more freedom to make their own decisions. The father is more involved with bringing up children, often because the mother goes out to work. Increased leisure facilities and more money mean that there are greater opportunities outside the home. Although the family holiday is still an important part of family life (usually taken in August, and often abroad) many children have holidays away from their parents, often with a school party or other organized group. Who looks after the older generation? There are about 10 million old-age pensioners in Britain, of whom about 750,000 cannot live entirely independently. The government gives financial help in the form of a pension but in the future it will be more and more difficult for the nation economy to support the increasing number of elderly. At the present time, more than half of all old people are looked after at home. Many others live in Old Peoples' Homes, which may be private or state owned. Exercise 2. Answer the questions. 1. How do you understand the saying The Englishmans home is his castle? 2. What is a typical British family? How many persons does it usually contain? Do all of them live together? 3. Who usually takes care about old-age pensioners in Britain? And in your country? Text 11 THE FAMILY IN AMERICA (1) Exercise 1. Read the text, get ready to fulfill the task. In America after the marriage the young couple is free to decide where to live and when to start a family. They plan the number of children they are going to have and when their children will be born. Birth-control information is easily available in most states, and the practice of limiting the size of families has had general approval. The birth rate has been declining steadily in recent years. If the couple finds that their marriage was a mistake, they are free to get a divorce. The divorce rate has almost doubled in the past fifty years, and current statistics indicate that one of every three marriages will end in divorce. Many people view these figures with alarm. They fear that the institution of marriage is falling apart. A number of sociologists, on the other hand, say that this increase in divorces doesn't indicate more unhappy marriages. Instead, the point to changes in the laws that has made divorce easier and to changes in attitudes that have made divorce more acceptable than it had been years ago. They also claim that since more than two thirds of all divorced people marry again, divorce marks a temporary rather than a permanent,break in marital relations. In the American family the husband and wife usually share important decision making. When the children are old enough, they participate as well.
Exercise 2. Do the tasks.
1. The word “available” from the first passage means:
A. полезный B. действительный C. доступный D. надёжный
2. Choose the antonym to the word divorce from the first passage. A. engagement B. loneliness C. dating D. marriage 3. Give the infinitive of the word born from the first passage. A. to be B. to bear C. to bore D. to bound 4. Open the brackets choosing the correct variant The planning of planning the number of children (to approve) The planning of the number of children has been approved The planning of the number of children is approved The planning of the number of children approved The planning of the number of children will be approved 5. What sentence corresponds to the contents of the 1 passage? A. The young couple should live with their parents. B. The number of children must not be planned C. Parents should not limit the size of families. D. The number of children is becoming less and less nowadays. 6. What sentence doesnt correspond to the contents of the 2 passage? A. One of every three marriages will end in divorce. B. Many earlier divorced people marry again. C. Now there are fewer divorced than fifty years ago. D. Divorce is a temporary break in marital relations. 7. What sentence corresponds to the contents of the whole text? A. The birth rate has been declining in recent years. B. The young couple makes her own choice where to live. C. The number of divorces is growing but the institution of marriage is not disintegrating. D. The Americans do not limit the size of families. 8. What sentence doesnt correspond to the whole text? A. Everything connected with marriage is very important for the Americans. B. The Americans often marry and often divorce. C. Children dont take part in family decision making. D. The Americans dont take care of their children. 9. Choose the correct answer: How does the young couple start family life? A. They always follow their parents advice. B. They live separately and decide everything themselves. C. A great number of marriages end in divorce. D. They dont limit the size of families. 10. Choose the correct answer: Do the children in America take part in discussing familys affairs? Sometimes they take part in discussion. They are never allowed to interfere in decision making. Children always participate in decision making. Parents let them discuss family affairs when they are old enough. Text 12 THE FAMILY IN AMERICA (2) Exercise 1. Look through the text and do the test. Foreign observers are frequently amazed by the permissiveness of American parents. The old rule that "children should be seen and not heard" is rarely followed, and children are often allowed to do what they wish without strict parental control. The father seldom expects his children to obey him without questions, and children are encouraged to be independent at an early age. Some people believe that American parents carry this freedom too far. Young people are expected to break away from their parental families by the time they have reached their late teens or early twenties. Indeed, not to do so is often regarded as a failure, a kind of weak dependence. This pattern of independence often results in serious problems for the aging parents. The job-retirement age is usually 65. The children have left home, married, and set up their own households. Elderly couples feel useless and lonely. Many communities and church groups arrange social centers for "senior citizens". At these centers older men and women can make friends and participate in a variety of planned activities, including games, trips, lectures and discussion groups. Their programs may help some old people, but they do not provide the complete solution to the problems of an old age. Another subject that has been receiving considerable attention recently is the position of women in the USA. Supporters of the women's liberation movement want women to achieve equality with men. Their major concerns are economic and social. They are to improve job opportunities for women, and they believe that women and men should receive the same rate of pay for the same kind of work. Besides, they believe that men should perform some of the home-making duties that women have traditionally performed. Exercise 2. Do the test. 1. Choose the synonym to the word "frequently" from the first passage. a. enough b. carefully c often . 2. What sentence doesn't correspond to the contents of the 2 passage? A. Social centres are of great help for lonely people. B. Independence of married children is a serious social problem for their parents. C. Aging parents mostly have to solve all their life problems themselves. D .Taking part in some kind of social activities let people make friends 3. Choose the correct answer to the questions according to the text. What strikes foreigners in American family relations? A. The Americans are very careful parents. B. The Americans control their children very strictly. C. The Americans are very kind parents. D. The Americans permit their children to do whatever they like. 4. What sentence corresponds to the contents of the text? A. Foreigners are often surprised by the strictness of American parents. B. Young people keep on living with their parents very long. C. Many aging parents join social centres for "senior citizens". D. Social centres completely solve all the problems of old age. SPEECH EXERCISES. Exercise 1. Answer the questions: 1. Have you got a family? Is your family large or small? How many are you in the family? 2. Does your mother work? What is she? Is she fond of her job? 3. What is your father? Is he your mothers senior? 4. Have you got a brother or a sister (or both)? What are they? What are their names? How old are they? Are they your senior or junior? Are they married? Have they got children? 5. Are you married? Are you an only child? 6. Have you got many relatives? Have you got aunts , uncles? Have you got cousins? 7. Have you got grandparents? How old are they? Do they work or are they retired pensions? 8. Have you got nieces, nephews? Are you fond of them? Exercise 2. Complete the story given below filling in the blanks. My name is .I live in .I am years old. My family is rather .We arein the family. My father is a My mother is a .I have gotgrandparents. They are retied . Exercise 3. Speak on the topics. 1. What is the family for you? What relations must there be in the family? Tell about your family 2. What is the family for your? What relations must there be in the family? Tell about your friend and his/her family. WRITTEN TASKS Exercise 1. You got a letter from Ann. She writes: The wedding of my sister was marvelous. We had a lot of fun. My sister was the happiest in the world... 1 variant Tell me, please, about your family. Are you a happy family? Why can you say so? 2 variant What can you tell me about your new friends family? Hope to hear from you soon. Love, Ann Write down a letter to your English-speaking friend answering her questions and ask her 3 questions about her family. Remember the rules of letter writing. Exercise 2. Optional written task: Compare Russian, English and American families: common features and differences. Follow the plan: Make a general statement of the problem Define common features with examples Define differences with examples Makie a conclusion. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Рекомендации к оформлению личного письма
Адрес пишущего указывается в правом
верхнем углу

Под адресом дата. Например:
Saturday, March 1st, 1999,
или менее официально: 9 September 1999;
09/09/1999

Письмо начинается с обращения.
Например: Dear Sally,
Dear Aunt Jane,
После обращения ставится запятая.

В начале письма автор обычно:
А) благодарит адресата за ранее полученную
корреспонденцию, например:
Thanks for …, Many thanks for…,
How nice of you to…,
I was awfully glad to get your letter…
Б) извиняется, что не писал раньше, например:
I must apologize for not writing…
I really should have written sooner…

Основная часть письма. В ней
должны быть раскрыты все аспекты,
указанные в задании.

В конце письма автор обычно упоминает о дальнейших контактах, например:
I will write again soon.
Looking forward to seeing you.
Hope to hear from you soon.

Завершающая фраза письма зависит от степени близости автора и адресата, после нее всегда ставится запятая, ниже приводятся пять возможных вариантов от наименее формального (1) к более формальному (4).
I love you so much,
Lots of love/ Much love,
Love,
Best wishes/ All the best,

Подпись автора. Личные письма подписываются без указания фамилии: Sally, David. Точка не ставится.


























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