English for physicists Шолпан Билашевна Гумарова Баян Калмухановна Исабаева Лидия Евгеньевна Страутман Алия Ашимхалиевна Нурмуханбетова Данное методическое указание предназначено для работы со студентами-бакалаврами и преподавателями вузов, а также учителями школ. При составлении пособия авторы стремились максимально облегчить и ускорить процесс усвоения языкового материала, принимая во внимание уровень подготовки учащихся. В работе большое внимание уделено терминологии, что позволяет обучающимся легко извлекать основную идею текста. Подбор текстов по специальности способствует самостоятельной работе над профессионально-ориентированным чтением, что отвечает требованиям высшей школы. Издается в авторской редакции. The present teaching manual is designated for students, teachers of physics and physicists. The aim of the authors is to facilitate the process of mastering the language material taking into account the level of learners. Special attention is paid to terminology and glossary which enables the students to catch the main idea of the text. The choice of texts on speciality contributes to the work connected with professionally-oriented reading meeting the requirements of higher educational institution. Published in authorial release. Л. Е. Страутман English for physicists: методическое указание INTRODUCTION The present teaching manual is designated for learners of Pre-Intermediate/Intermediate levels studying at higher educational institutions. The aim of the manual is to teach students how to extract information from the text, to understand its main content and to develop elementary skills of speaking on speciality. The teaching manual includes fourteen texts followed by exercises, texts for supplementary reading, lexical-grammar tests and description of the technique of working at texts. The work on vocabulary and phrases from the text assumes removal of some difficulties when working at the text. The way of introducing grammar makes it possible to facilitate the work at certain speech tasks. Other types of exercises include word formation, choice of synonyms and antonyms, substitution tables, filling the gaps, translation from English into Russian/Kazakh and from Russian/Kazakh into English and answering the questions. The purpose of primary reading is to understand the main content of the text, which develops some skills of a purposeful intelligent reading. It is not recommended to translate the text in details as sometimes it is not considered as one of the effective ways of working at the text. The work before reading the text and translation of some sentences considerably facilitate the process of mastering the language material. Control and choice of texts for independent work are carried out at a teacher’s discretion. At the final stage of work it is possible to speak on the topic chosen by learners or a teacher. UNIT 1 Vocabulary notation n. – система представления чисел; to relate (to) v. – 1) устанавливать связь; (to, with – между чем-л.); 2) быть связанным; 3) относиться, иметь отношение; solid a. – 1) твердый, плотный; сплошной; n твердое тело; – solution твердый раствор; measurement n. – измерение; vary a. – 1) менять (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=188082_2_1&s1=vary); 2) меняться (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=95574_2_1&s1=vary); 3) изменяться (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=44193_2_1&s1=vary); tremendously adv. – 1) очень сильно; 2) чрезвычайно; to denote v. – обозначать; cumbersome a. – громоздкий; трудоемкий; scale n. – масштаб; insulating layer – изолирующий слой затвора (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=441707_2_1&s1=%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%20%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD,%20%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%20%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%20%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD); integrated circuits – интегральная схема (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=2293085_2_1&s1=amplifier%20integrated%20circuit); power n. – мощность; производительность; степень; lose track – потерять счет; to deal with v. – иметь дело (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=2660987_2_1&s1=deal%20with) (чем-л.; с кем-л.); decimal – десятичный; significant digit /figure – значащая цифра; multiplied by – умножать на; value n. – ценность (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=11743_2_1&s1=value); важность (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=811234_2_1&s1=value); полезность (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=811235_2_1&s1=value); значение (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=44179_2_1&s1=value); смысл (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=187957_2_1&s1=value); to convert v. – преобразовать (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=1035127_2_1&ifp=1&s1=%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD%20%EF%BF%BD%EF%BF%BD); in essence – в сущности, по существу; to add v. – добавить; прибавить; суммировать; I. Practice pronunciation of the following words: physics ['fɪzɪks] decimal ['desɪməl ] mathematics [ 'mæθə'mætɪks] equal ['i: kwəl ] efficiently [ɪ'fɪʃntlɪ] convert [ kən'vɜ:t ] accurately ['ækjʊrɪtlɪ] assume [ ə'sju: m ] measurement ['meʒəmənt] digit ['dɪdʒɪt ] cumbersome ['kʌmbəsəm] radius ['reɪdiəs ] circuit ['sɜ:kɪt] significant [ sɪɡ'nɪfɪkənt ] II. Read and translate the words having the same root Physics – physicists – physical, science – scientist – scientific, relate – relation – related, multiply – multiplied, move – movement, add – addition – added, thick – thickness, integrate – integrative – integrated, assume – assumption – assumed, equal – equality. III. Match the words in the left column with its antonym in the right column IV. Find in the text the equivalents of the following word combinations and write them out. 1) тесно связаны 2) обозначения больших и маленьких чисел 3) значащие цифры 4) правильное значение 5) вернуться к исходному значению 6) записать это в научной системе представления чисел 7) умножить число на некоторую степень 8) использовать отрицательные степени 9) получить конечное значение 10) переместить десятичный знак (http://www.multitran.ru/c/m.exe?t=5746274_2_1&s1=decimal%20place) V. Give the degrees of comparison of the following words Vary, difficult, high, large, long, useful, small, much, many, easy, little, significant, original, final. VI. Read and translate the text Scientific Notation Although physics and mathematics aren't the same thing, they are in many ways closely related. Just like English is the language of this content, mathematics is the language of physics. A solid understanding of a few simple math concepts will allow us to communicate and describe the physical world both efficiently and accurately. Because measurements of the physical world vary so tremendously in size (imagine trying to describe the distance across the United States in units of hair thicknesses), physicists often times use what is known as scientific notation to denote very large and very small numbers. These very large and very small numbers would become quite cumbersome to write out repeatedly. Imagine writing 4,000,000,000,000 over and over again. Your hand would get tired and your pen would rapidly run out of ink! Instead, it's much easier to write this number as 4×10 . See how much easier that is? Or on the smaller scale, the thickness of the insulating layer (known as a gate dielectric) in the integrated circuits that power our computers and other electronics can be less than 0.000000001 m. It's easy to lose track of how many zeros you have to deal with, so scientists instead would write this number as 1×10 m. See how much simpler life can be with scientific notation? Scientific notation follows these simple rules. Start by showing all the significant figures in the number you're describing, with the decimal point after the first significant digit. Then, show your number being multiplied by 10 to the appropriate power in order to give you the correct value. It sounds more complicated than it is. Let's say, for instance, you want to show the number 300,000,000 in scientific notation (a very useful number in physics), and let's assume we know this value to three significant digits. We would start by writing our three significant digits, with the decimal point after the first digit, as «3.00». Now, we need to multiply this number by 10 to some power in order to get back to our original value. In this case, we multiply 3.00 by 10 , for an answer of 3.00×10 . Interestingly, the power you raise the 10 to is exactly equal to the number of digits you moved the decimal to the left as you converted from standard to scientific notation. Similarly, if you start in scientific notation, to convert to standard notation, all you have to do is remove the 10 power by moving the decimal point eight digits to the right. Now you are an expert in scientific notation! But, what do you do if the number is much smaller than one? The same basic idea… let's assume we're dealing with the approximate radius of an electron, which is 0.00000000000000282 m. It's easy to see how unwieldy this could become. We can write this in scientific notation by writing our three significant digits, with the decimal point after the first digit, as «2.82». Again, we multiply this number by some power to 10 in order to get back to our original value. Because our value is less than 1, we need to use negative powers of 10. If we raise 10 to the power -15, specifically, we get a final value of 2.82×10 m. In essence, for every digit we moved the decimal place, we add another power of 10. And if we start with scientific notation, all we do is move the decimal place left one digit for every negative power of (to) 10. VII. Answer the questions on the text 1. In what way are physics and mathematics related? 2. What is meant by scientific notation? 3. What rules does it follow? 4. How many positions do you need to show the numbers in scientific notation? 5. Express the number 0.000470 in scientific notation. Express the number 2,870,000 in scientific notation. UNIT 2 Vocabulary to involve v. – 1) вовлекать; включать в себя 2) быть связанным с ч-л.; prediction n. – предположение; предсказание phenomenon n. – явление; to communicate v. – 1) сообщаться; 2) держать связь; 3) сообщение; data n. – данные, сведения to set v. – комплектовать; to standardize v. – стандартизировать; to define v. – 1) определять; 2) давать определение; 3) устанавливать; unit n. – 1) единица (оборудования); 2) блок; 3) установка; current n. – 1) ток (эл.); 2) a. современный; to form the foundation – образовывать основание; to refer v. – 1) ссылаться (на), 2) упоминать; to focus v. – концентрировать(ся), сосредоточивать(cя); to introduce v. – представлять (http://www.babla.ru/%D1%80%D1%83%D1%81%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9-%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B9%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9/%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B4%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BB%D1%8F%D1%82%D1%8C); length n. – 1) длина; 2) отрезок, кусок; to divide (into) – делить (на); to make up – составлять; wire n. – проволока, провод; paperclip n. – скрепка для бумаг; to break up – разбивать; разрушать familiar adj. – хорошо известный, знакомый to be based on – быть основанным на ч. – л.; I. Practice pronunciation of the following words: analysis [ə'nalɪsɪs] approximately [ə'prɒksɪmətli] specific [spə'sɪfɪk] length [lɛŋθ] standarize ['stændərdaɪz] equivalent [ɪ'kwɪv(ə)l(ə)nt] meter ['mi: tə] cube [kju: b] kilogram [ 'kɪləɡram] microsecond ['mʌɪkrə(ʊ),sɛkənd] second ['sɛk(ə)nd] extremely [ɪk'stri: mli ] ampere ['ampɛ:] valuable ['valjʊb(ə)l] roughly ['rʌfli] chart [tʃɑ:t] II. Read and translate the words having the same root communicate – communication, measure – measurement, define – definition, found – foundation, introduce – introduction – introduced, divide – division – divided, convert – conversion. III. Make the following nouns plural Phenomenon, basis, analysis, datum, thesis, ampere, radius, medium, index. IV. Complete the sentences with the following words given below 1. ___________is considered to be the most basic of the natural sciences. 2. It ____________ the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions as well as the nature of atoms and the build-up of molecules and condensed matter. 3. Physics tries to give unified description of the behavior of matter as well as of radiation, covering as many types of ______________as possible. 4. Physics is the natural science that ____________ the study of matter and its motion and behavior. 5. The electric ____________is a quantity of electrons flowing in a circuit per second of time. 6. The metric system __________ powers of 10, allowing for easy conversion from one unit to another. 7. It is important to try to___________ energy. (Phenomena, physics, deals with, involve, current, save, be based on) V. Mind the explanation of the following terms The Metric system is a system using meters, kilograms, grams and liters to measure things. Physics is the scientific study of things like heat, light and sound. Analysis is the process of carefully examining the different parts of something. Phenomenon is something that is impressive or extraordinary. Measurement is the size of something that is found by measuring. Ampere is the basic unit of electrical current in the International System of Units (IS). Current is a flow of electrical charge carriers, usually electrons or electron-deficient atoms. Radius is the length of a straight line from the centre of a circle to the outside. Wire is a long piece of very thin metal. Power is (no plural) the energy or strength that somebody or something has. VI. Find sentences in the Passive Voice and translate them VII. Read and translate the text Metric System Physics involves the study, prediction, and analysis of real-world phenomena. To communicate data accurately, we must set specific standards for our basic measurements. The physics community has standardized on what is known as the Système International (SI), which defines seven baseline measurements and their standard units, forming the foundation of what is called the metric system of measurement. The SI system is often referred to as the mks system, as the three most common measurement units are meters, kilograms, and seconds, which we'll focus on for the majority of this course. The fourth SI base unit we'll use in this course, the ampere, will be introduced in the current electricity section. The base unit of length in the metric system, the meter, is roughly equivalent to the English yard. For smaller measurements, the meter is divided up into 100 parts, known as centimeters, and each centimeter is made up of 10 millimeters. For larger measurements, the meter is grouped into larger units of 1000 meters, known as a kilometer. The length of a baseball bat is approximately one meter, the radius of a U.S. quarter is approximately a centimeter, and the diameter of the metal in a wire paperclip is roughly one millimeter. The base unit of mass, the kilogram (kg), is roughly equivalent to two U.S. pounds. A cube of water 10cm × 10cm × 10cm has a mass of 1 kg. Kilograms can also be broken up into larger and smalller units, with commonly used measurements of grams (1/1000th of a kilogram) and milligrams (1/1000th of a gram). The mass of a textbook is approximately 2 to 3 kilograms, the mass of a baseball is approximately 145 grams, and the mass of a mosquito is 1 to 2 milligrams. The base unit of time, the second, is likely already familiar. Time can also be broken up into smaller units such as milliseconds (10 seconds), microseconds (10 seconds), and nanoseconds (10 seconds), or grouped into larger units such as minutes (60 seconds), hours(60 minutes), days (24 hours), and years (365.25 days). The metric system is based on powers of 10, allowing for easy conversion from one unit to another. A chart showing the meaning of commonly used metric prefixes and their notations can be extremely valuable in performing unit conversions. VIII. Answer the questions on the text 1. What does Physics deal with? 2. What is known by the Système International (SI)? 3. What is English yard equivalent to? 4. What is the metric system based on? UNIT 3 Vocabulary convenient a. – удобный; tool n. – 1) инструмент; 2) станок; to convey v. – 1) переправлять; 2) доставлять; behavior n. – 1) поведение; 2) тех. режим (работы); to describe v. – 1) описывать; 2) изображать; therefore adv. – 1) поэтому; 2) следовательно, таким образом fluent a. – 1) плавный; 2) гладкий; 3) беглый; to fret v. – беспокоить (ся); to conjure up v. – 1) явиться как по волшебству; 2) включить воображение; frustration n. – 1) расстройство; 2) срыв; to solve a problem – решить задачу; to determine v. – 1) определять; 2) устанавливать; to substitute v. – заменять; замещать; final equation – окончательное уравнение; to distill v. – перегонять, дистиллировать, гнать, очищать; sine n. – синус; cosine n. – косинус; adjacent a. – смежный; to inverse v. – быть противоположным ч. – л.; I. Practice pronunciation of the following words: natural ['natʃ(ə)r(ə)l] strategy ['stratɪdʒi] algebra ['aldʒɪbrə] diagram ['dʌɪəɡram] trigonometry ['trɪɡə,nɒmɪtri] value ['valju:] knowledge ['nɒlɪdʒ] equation [ɪ'kweɪʒ(ə)n] successfully [sək'sesfəli] triangle ['trʌɪaŋɡ(ə)l] range [reɪn(d)ʒ] cosine ['kəʊsʌɪn] majority [mə'dʒɒrɪti] tangent ['tan(d)ʒ(ə)nt] conjure ['kʌndʒə] adjacent [ə'dʒeɪs(ə)nt] II.a.Match the synonyms 1) convenient a) issue 2) tool b) huge 3) function c) significant 4) basic d) ultimate 5) problem e) main 6) vast f) plurality 7) important g) instrument 8) substitute h) comfortable 9) final i) alternative 10) majority j) operation b. Match the antonyms 1) determine a) stop 2) range b) expand 3) make c) reverse 4) wide d) destroy 5) replace e) unsuitable 6) produce f) dislike 7) reduce g) commence 8) appropriate h) remain 9) require i) narrow 10) inverse j) domain III. Fill in the gaps with the words below 1. Physicists use ____________to measure things from speed to capacitance. 2. Scientists need a powerful device to _________ a molecule's form and function. 3. The ____________, with sine and tangent, is one of the three most common trigonometric functions. 4. It is not easy to find alternate ways _____________ physics concepts to non-physicists. 5. Scientists believe that nuclear power is necessary to __________the gas power. IV. Mind the explanation of the following terms algebra – (no plural) a type of mathematics in which letters and symbols are used to represent numbers. trigonometry – branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles. sine – the ratio of the side opposite a given acute angle to the hypotenuse. cosine – the ratio of the side adjacent to a given angle to the hypotenuse. tangent – the ratio of the side opposite a given angle to the side adjacent to the angle. adjacent – lying near, close, or contiguous, adjoining, neighboring. hypotenuse – the side of a right triangle opposite the right angle. V. Read and translate the text Algebra and Trigonometry Just as we find the English language a convenient tool for conveying thoughts to each other, we need a convenient language for conveying our understanding of the world around us in order to understand its behavior. The language most commonly (and conveniently) used to describe the natural world is mathematics. Therefore, to understand physics, we need to be fluent in the mathematics of the topics we'll study in this course… specifically basic algebra and trigonometry. Now don't you fret or frown, for those whom the word «trig» conjures up feelings of pain, angst, and frustration, have no fear. We will need only the most basic of algebra and trigonometry knowledge in order to successfully solve a wide range of physics problems. A vast majority of problems requiring algebra can be solved using the same problem solving strategy. First, analyze the problem and write down what you know, what you need to find, and make a picture or diagram to better understand the problem if it makes sense. Then, start your solution by searching for a path that will lead you from your givens to your finds. Once you've determined an appropriate pathway (and there may be more than one), solve your problem algebraically for your answer. Finally, as your last steps, substitute in any values with units into your final equation, and solve for your answer, with units. Our use of trigonometry, the study of right triangles, can be distilled down to the definitions of the three basic trigonometric functions. When you know the length of two sides of a right triangle, or the length of one side and a non-right angle, you can solve for all the angles and sides of the triangle. If you can use the definitions of the sine, cosine, and tangent, you'll be fine in this course. Of course, if you need to solve for the angles themselves, you can use the inverse trigonometric functions. VI. Arrange the expressions using the suitable words in the following two columns 1) to know a) a diagram 2) to understand b) the natural world 3) to determine c) the length of a right triangle 4) to use d) problems 5) a convenient e) behavior 6) need f) an appropriate pathway 7) to study g) knowledge 8) make h) functions 9) to solve i) basic algebra 10) to describe j) tool VII. Answer the questions on the text 1. For what purpose do we need a special language for conveying our understanding of the world? 2. Why do we have to study basic of algebra and trigonometry? 3. How can the majority of problems requiring algebra be solved? 4. A car travels from the airport 14 miles east and 7 miles north to its destination. What direction should a helicopter fly from the airport to reach the same destination, traveling in a straight line? UNIT 4 Vocabulary quantity n. – количество; to represent v. – 1) представлять; 2) изображать; отражать; to include v. – включать; force n. – 1) сила; 2) действие; velocity n. – скорость; acceleration n. – ускорение; concept n. – 1) концепция; 2) понятие; arrow n. – стрелка; to indicate v. – указывать; показывать; magnitude n. – 1) размеры; 2) важность; space n. – 1) космос; 2) пространство; to reverse – поменять; поворачивать; retain n. – 1) покой, отдых; 2) остаток; resultant n. – сумма двух векторов; to draw v. – вытягивать, отодвигать, подтягивать, приближать; I. Practice pronunciation of the following words: Vector ['vɛktə] velocity [vɪ'lɒsɪti] Scalar ['skeɪlə] acceleration [əksɛlə'reɪʃ(ə)n] examine [ɪɡ'zamɪn] concept ['kɒnsɛpt ] magnitude ['maɡnɪtju: d] arrow ['arəʊ] quantity ['kwɒntɪti] figure ['fɪɡə] temperature ['tɛmp(ə)rətʃə] straight [streɪt] descriptive [dɪ'skrɪptɪv] touch [tʌtʃ] force [fɔ:s] resultant [rɪ'zʌlt(ə)nt] II. Read and translate the words having the same root representing (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/representing) – represented (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/represented) – representment (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/representment) – misrepresent (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/misrepresent); directional (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/directional) – indirection (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/indirection) – misdirection (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/misdirection)– directions (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/directions); acceleration – accelerated (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/accelerated) – accelerating (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/accelerating); indicated (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/indicated) – indication (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/indication) – indicative (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/indicative) – indicator (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/indicator); reversal (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/reversal) – reversible (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/reversible) – reversion (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/reversion) – reversed (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/reversed) – reverser (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/reverser) – reversing (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/reversing). III. Match the following words (a, b, c…) with the statements (1, 2, 3…) a) confuse b) concept c ) to represent d) magnitude e) arrow f) to line up g) to retain h) acceleration 1) the sign that shows where something is or where you should go 2) difficult to understand 3) to be an example or sign of something 4) to stay without changes 5) the size, extent, or importance of something 6) physical term, representing decreasing or increasing velocity by time 7) to stand in a line or make a line 8) picture in your mind IV. Insert prepositions: of, into, on, to, at 1. Mechanical engineering achieved a prominent position _______ the very beginning. 2. Energy can change from one type ________another. 3. Electrical engineering is subdivided ___________ two branches. 4. It is well known that personal experience depends _______ practical work. 5. ______ the 17th century, Galileo Galilee began a re-examination _______ the motion ________ falling bodies. 6. The ship was helpless against the power __________the storm. V. Mind the explanation of the following terms Vector – a quantity possessing both magnitude and direction. Scalar – a quantity possessing only magnitude. quantity – how much of something there is. magnitude – size, extent, dimensions. resultant – resulting from the combination of two or more agents. force – to do something by using a lot of strength. velocity – rapidity of motion or operation. acceleration – a change in velocity. VI .Read and translate the text. Retell it in English Vectors and Scalars Quantities in physics are used to represent real-world measurements, and therefore physicists use these quantities as tools to better understand the world. In examining these quantities, there are times when just a number, with a unit, can completely describe a situation. These numbers, which have a magnitude, or size, only are known as scalars. Examples of scalars include quantities such as temperature, mass, and time. At other times, a quantity is more descriptive if it also includes a direction. These quantities which have both a magnitude and direction are known as vectors. Vector quantities you may be familiar with include force, velocity, and acceleration. Most students will be familiar with scalars, but to many, vectors may be a new and confusing concept. By learning just a few rules for dealing with vectors, though, you’ll find that they are a powerful tool for problem solving. A study of motion involves introduction of a variety of quantities that are used to describe the physical world. Examples of such quantities include distance, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, force, mass, momentum, energy, work, power, etc. All these quantities can by divided into two categories – vectors and scalars. A vector quantity is a quantity that is fully described by both magnitude and direction. On the other hand, a scalar quantity is a quantity that is fully described by its magnitude. The emphasis of this unit is to understand some fundamentals about vectors and to apply the fundamentals in order to understand motion and forces that occur in two dimensions. Examples of vector quantities include displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force. Each of these quantities is unique in that a full description of the quantity demands that both a magnitude and a direction are listed. For example, suppose your teacher tells you, «A bag of gold is located outside the classroom. To find it, displace yourself 20 meters». This statement may provide you enough information to pique your interest; yet, there is not enough information included in the statement to find the bag of gold. The displacement required to find the bag of gold has not been fully described. On the other hand, suppose your teacher tells you, «A bag of gold is located outside the classroom. To find it, displace yourself from the center of the classroom door 20 meters in a direction 30 degrees to the west of north». This statement now provides a complete description of the displacement vector – it lists both magnitude (20 meters) and direction (30 degrees to the west of north) relative to a reference or starting position (the center of the classroom door). Vector quantities are not fully described unless both magnitude and direction are listed. Vectors are often represented as arrows, with the length of the arrow indicating the magnitude of the quantity, and the direction of the arrow indicating the direction of the vector. In the figure at right, vector B has a magnitude greater than that of vector A. Vectors A and B point in the same direction, however. It’s also important to note that vectors can be moved anywhere in space. The positions of A and B could be reversed, and the individual vectors would retain their values of magnitude and direction. This makes adding vectors very straight forward! To add vectors A and B, all we have to do is line them up so that the tip of the first vector touches the tail of the second vector. Then, to find the sum of the vectors, known as the resultant, all we have to do is draw a straight line from the start of the first vector to the end of the last vector. This method works with any number of vectors. Velocity and speed are very similar ideas, but velocity is a vector, and speed is not. Suppose we knew that someone was driving at thirty-five kilometers an hour (35 km/hr), but the direction wasn't given. How would you draw an arrow to represent a vector? You can't know how to draw the vector if you only have one value (either amount or direction). In this example, you were never told about the direction. Physicists would say that the speed is thirty-five kilometers an hour (35 km/hr), but the velocity is unknown. On the other hand, if you're moving at 35 km/hr in a northern direction, then you would have an arrow pointing north with a length of 35. Physicists would say that the velocity is 35 km/hr north. Velocity is the rate of motion in a specific direction. I'm going that-a-way at 30 kilometers per hour. My velocity is 30 kilometers per hour that-a-way. Average speed is described as a measure of distance divided by time. Velocity can be constant, or it can change (acceleration). Speed with a direction is velocity. You will use a lot of vectors when you work with velocity. Our real world example of navigation on the ocean used velocity for every vector. Velocity is a vector measurement because it has an amount and a direction. Speed is only an amount (a scalar). Speed doesn't tell the whole story to a physicist. Think of it another way. If I tell you I'm driving north and ask you how long until we get to the city. You can't know the answer since you don't know my speed. You need both values. When velocity is changing, the word acceleration is used. Acceleration is also a vector. You speed up if the acceleration and velocity point in the same direction. You slow down (also referred to as decelerating) if the acceleration and velocity point in opposite directions. When you accelerate or decelerate, you change your velocity by a specific amount over a specific amount of time. Just as with velocity, there is something called instantaneous acceleration. Instantaneous means scientists measure your acceleration for a specific moment of time. That way they can say he was accelerating at exactly this amount at this point during his trip. VII. Answer the questions on the text 1. Why do physicists use quantities? 2. What do we mean by ‘scalars’? 3. What examples do scalars include? 4. A motorboat, which has a speed of 5.0 meters per second in still water, is headed east as it crosses a river flowing south at 3.3 meters per second. What is the magnitude of the boat's resultant velocity with respect to the starting point? 3.3 m/s 5.0 m/s 6.0 m/s 8.3 m/s UNIT 5 Vocabulary earth n. – Земля; source n. – источник; solar a. – солнечная система; hydroelectric a. – гидроэлектрический; fossil n. – ископаемое; fuel n. – топливо; trace v. – оставить след; origin n. – 1) возникновение; 2) происхождение; investigate v. – 1) исследовать; 2) расследовать; motion n. – движение; to develop v. – 1) развивать, разрабатывать; создавать; 2) проявлять(фото); to expand v. – расширять (ся); ability a. – способность; capacity n. – 1) производительность; мощность; 2) способность; location n. – местонахождение; to lead (led) v. – вести, возглавлять; приводить к чему-либо; major a. – главный, основной; constraint n. – ограничение; I. Practice pronunciation of the following words: honors ['ɒnəz] motion ['məʊʃ(ə)n] energy ['ɛnədʒi] principle ['prɪnsɪp(ə)l] universe ['ju: nɪvə:s] serve [sə:v] Earth [ə:θ] expand [ɪk'spand] fossil ['fɒs(ə)l] capacity [kə'pasɪti ] fuel ['fju:əl] position [pə'zɪʃ(ə)n] eventually [ɪ'vɛntʃuəli] Greek [ɡri: k] type [taɪp] dynamics [dʌɪ'namɪks] II. Read and translate the words having the same root investigate – investigator – investigatory (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/investigatory); varying – unvarying; serve – disserve (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/disserve) – reserve (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/reserve) – serving (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/serving) – server (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/server); expand – expanding (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/expanding) – expanded (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/expanded) – expander (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/expander); ability – capability (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/capability) – disability (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/disability) – durability (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/durability); capacity – capacitance (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/capacitance) – incapacity (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/incapacity) – capacitor (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/capacitor) – high-capacity (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/high-capacity); major – majority (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/majority); location – dislocation (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/dislocation) – relocation (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/relocation); change – changeable (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/changeable) – changeful (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/changeful) – changeless (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/changeless) – changing (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/changing) – changer (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/changer); develop – developer (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/developer) – development (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/development) – developing (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/developing) – developable (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/developable). III. Use adverbs to complete the sentences 1. The electrical phenomena show that there are two ions to the molecule, and that these ions are ___________ changed. 2. Atomic bomb reaches ground level as sticky, dark, __________radioactive weapon. 3. In a solid, atoms are ___________ attracted. 4. When a bomb explodes, it bursts____________ and with great force. 5. Molecules tend to move from places of high concentration to places of low concentration, just by moving ______________. 6. Atoms of gases are ____________ distributed. IV. Mind the explanation of the following terms Kinematics – the branch of mechanics which describes the motion of points, bodies. Earth – this world; the planet that we live on. Source – device that produces electricity. Energy – the power from electricity, gas, coal, etc .that is used to make machines work and to make heat and light. Kinetic – is energy of motion. Solar power – (no plural) the sun and the planets that move around it. Hydroelectric – using the power of water to produce electricity. Fossil fuels – a part of a dead plant or an animal that has been in the ground for a very long time and has turned into rock. Motion – (no plural) movement. Dynamics – the branch of mechanics which describes state of motion (movements of specific objects). V. Read and translate the text. Retell it in English Kinematics Motion always draws our attention. Motion itself can be beautiful, causing us to marvel at the forces needed to achieve spectacular motion, such as that of a dolphin jumping out of the water, or a pole vaulter, or the flight of a bird, or the orbit of a satellite. The study of motion is kinematics, but kinematics only describes the way objects move – their velocity and their acceleration. Dynamics considers the forces that affect the motion of moving objects and systems. Newton’s laws of motion are the foundation of dynamics. These laws provide an example of the breadth and simplicity of principles under which nature functions. They are also universal laws in that they apply to similar situations on Earth as well as in space. Issac Newton’s (1642–1727) laws of motion were just one part of the monumental work that has made him legendary. The development of Newton’s laws marks the transition from the Renaissance into the modern era. This transition was characterized by a revolutionary change in the way people thought about the physical universe. For many centuries natural philosophers had debated the nature of the universe based largely on certain rules of logic with great weight given to the thoughts of earlier classical philosophers such as Aristotle (384–322 BC). Among the many great thinkers who contributed to this change were Newton and Galileo. Galileo was instrumental in establishing observation as the absolute determinant of truth, rather than «logical» argument. Galileo’s use of the telescope was his most notable achievement in demonstrating the importance of observation. He discovered moons orbiting Jupiter and made other observations that were inconsistent with certain ancient ideas and religious dogma. For this reason, and because of the manner in which he dealt with those in authority, Galileo was tried by the Inquisition and punished. He spent the final years of his life under a form of house arrest. Because others before Galileo had also made discoveries by observing the nature of the universe, and because repeated observations verified those of Galileo, his work could not be suppressed or denied. After his death, his work was verified by others, and his ideas were eventually accepted by the church and scientific communities. Galileo also contributed to the formation of what is now called Newton’s first law of motion. Newton made use of the work of his predecessors, which enabled him to develop laws of motion, discover the law of gravity, invent calculus, and make great contributions to the theories of light and color. It is amazing that many of these developments were made with Newton working alone, without the benefit of the usual interactions that take place among scientists today. It was not until the advent of modern physics early in the 20th century that it was discovered that Newton’s laws of motion produce a good approximation to motion only when the objects are moving at speeds much, much less than the speed of light and when those objects are larger than the size of most molecules (about 10 m in diameter). These constraints define the realm of classical mechanics, as discussed in Introduction to the Nature of Science and Physics. At the beginning of the 20th century, Albert Einstein (1879–1955) developed the theory of relativity and, along with many other scientists, developed quantum theory. This theory does not have the constraints present in classical physics. All of the situations we consider in this chapter, and all those preceding the introduction of relativity in Special Relativity, are in the realm of classical physics. Physics is a science about the energy in the universe, in all its various forms. Here on Earth, the source of our energy, directly or indirectly, is the sun. Solar power, wind power, hydroelectric power, fossil fuels, we can eventually trace the origin of all energy on our planet back to our sun. So where do we start in our study of the universe? Theoretically, we could start by investigating any of these types of energy. In reality, however, by starting with energy of motion (kinetic energy), we can develop a set of analytical problem solving skills from basic principles that will serve us well as we expand into our study of other types of energy. For an object to have kinetic energy, it must be moving. Specifically: If kinetic energy is energy of motion, and energy is the ability or capacity to do work (moving an object), then we can think of kinetic energy as the ability or capacity of a moving object to move another object. But what does it mean to be in motion? A moving object has a varying position… its location changes as a function of time. So to understand kinetic energy, we'll need to better understand position and how position changes. This will lead us into our first major unit, kinematics, from the Greek word kinein, meaning to move. Formally, kinematics is the branch of physics dealing with the description of an object's motion, leaving the study of the «why» of motion to our next major topic, dynamics. VI. Are the sentences true (T), false (F) or not given (NG) 1. Physics is a science studying kinetic energy. 2. The Sun is the source of our energy. 3. Due to the sun we can get solar power, wind power, hydroelectric power, and fossil fuels. 4. Energy that we get from the sun is expensive. 5. The object must not move to have kinetic energy. 6. A moving object’s location changes as a function of time. 7. The word kinematics is from the Greek word kinein, meaning to jump. 8. Kinematics is a branch of mathematics. VII. Answer the questions on the text 1. What do you understand by Physics? 2. What sources of energy do you know? 3. What is the origin of the word ‘kinematics? 4. An astronaut drops a hammer from 2.0 meters above the surface of the Moon. If the acceleration due to gravity on the Moon is 1.62 meters per second2, how long will it take for the hammer to fall to the Moon’s surface? UNIT 6 Vocabulary free a. – свободный; ~ of charge бесплатный; to fall (fell, fallen) v. – падать; понижаться; n. падение; to believe v. – верить, полагать, считать; due to prep. – из-за, благодаря, вследствие; to drop v. – бросать, оставлять; – the idea перестать думать, отказаться от мысли; n капля; simultaneously adv. – одновременно; to crumple v. – мять (ся); комкать морщиться съеживаться; to conclude v. – 1) заключить; 2) прийти к выводу; resistance n. – 1) сопротивление; 2) v. сопротивляться; оказывать сопротивление; to neglect v. – пренебрегать; to execute v. – выполнять; executable a. – выполняемый; strength n. – прочность; ~ of materials сопротивление материалов; surface n. – 1) поверхность; 2) a. наружный; to indicate v. – показывать; I. Practice pronunciation of the following words: massive ['masɪv] continuously ['kən,tɪnjʊəsli| ] feather [ fɛðə] gravitation [ɡravɪteɪʃ(ə)n] piece ['pi: s] strength [streŋθ] tight [tʌɪt] analyze ['ænəlaɪz] air [eə] local [ləʊk(ə)l] purpose ['pə:pəs] affect [ə'fɛkt] II. Read and translate the words having the same root correct – correction (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/correction) – corrective (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/corrective) – correctly (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/correctly) – corrector (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/corrector) – incorrect (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/incorrect); conclude – concluding; prediction – predict (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/predict) – predictable (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/predictable) – predicted (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/predicted); affect – affected (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/affected) – affection (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/affection) – affective (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/affective) – affecting (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/affecting); perform – performance (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/performance) – performer (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/performer) – performing (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/performing) – performed (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/performed); acceleration – accelerated (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/accelerated) – accelerating (http://wooordhunt.ru/word/accelerating). III. Fill in the gaps with the words below 1. The _________ of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference and is a function of time. 2. ____________of metals decreases at low temperature. 3. Our planet belongs to planets of terrestrial group. It means that the Earth's _____________is firm. 4. Mechanical ____________ is defined by numerous testing machines. 5. If you ____________ a load, it will ___________ with high speed. IV. Mind the explanation of the following terms height – how far it is from the bottom to the top of somebody or something . hypothesis – theory that you then test through study and experimentation. experiment – a scientific test that you do to find out what will happen or to see if something is true. gravitation – force between masses in the universe. V. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Modal verbs: 1. There are times when graphing motion may not be the most efficient or effective way of understanding the motion of an object. 2. To assist in these situations, you can add a set of problem-solving equations to your physics toolbox, known as the kinematic equations. 3. The scientists must carry out the experiment at once. 4. The workers had to solve the problem yesterday. 5. The engineer should be perfectly familiar with the properties of materials. VI. Read the text and make up a summary Free Fall Examination of free-falling bodies dates back to the days of Aristotle. At that time Aristotle believed that more massive objects would fall faster than less massive objects. He believed this in large part due to the fact that when examining a rock and a feather falling from the same height it is clear that the rock hits the ground first. Upon further examination it is clear that Aristotle was incorrect in his hypothesis. As proof, take a basketball and a piece of paper. Drop them simultaneously from the same height… do they land at the same time? Probably not. Now take that piece of paper and crumple it up into a tight ball and repeat the experiment. Now what do you see happen? You should see that both the ball and the paper land at the same time. Therefore you can conclude that Aristotle’s predictions did not account for the effect of air resistance. For the purposes of this course, drag forces such as air resistance will be neglected. In the 17th century, Galileo Galilee began a re-examination of the motion of falling bodies. Galileo, recognizing that air resistance affects the motion of a falling body, executed his famous thought experiment in which he continuously asked what would happen if the effect of air resistance was removed. Commander David Scott of Apollo 15 performed this experiment while on the moon. He simultaneously dropped a hammer and a feather, and observed that they reached the ground at the same time. Since Galileo’s experiments, scientists have come to a better understanding of how the gravitational pull of the Earth accelerates free-falling bodies. Through experimentation it has been determined that the local gravitational field strength (g) on the surface of the Earth is 9.8 N/kg, which further indicates that all objects in free fall (neglecting air resistance) experience an equivalent acceleration of 9.8 m/s toward the center of the Earth. (NOTE: If you move off the surface of the Earth the local gravitational field strength, and therefore the acceleration due to gravity, changes.) You can look at free-falling bodies as objects being dropped from some height or thrown vertically upward. In this examination you will analyze the motion of each condition. What is gravity? Gravity is the mysterious force that makes everything fall down towards the Earth. But what is it? It turns out that all objects have gravity. It's just that some objects, like the Earth and the Sun, have a lot more gravity than others. How much gravity an object has depends on how big it is. To be specific, how much mass it has. It also depends on how close you are to the object. The closer you are, the stronger the gravity. Why is gravity important? Gravity is very important to our everyday lives. Without Earth's gravity we would fly right off it. We'd all have to be strapped down. If you kicked a ball, it would fly off forever. While it might be fun to try for a few minutes, we certainly couldn't live without gravity. Gravity also is important on a larger scale. It is the Sun's gravity that keeps the Earth in orbit around the Sun. Life on Earth needs the Sun's light and warmth to survive. Gravity helps the Earth to stay just the right distance from the Sun, so it's not too hot or too cold. Who discovered gravity? The first person who dropped something heavy on their toe knew something was going on, but gravity was first mathematically described by the scientist Isaac Newton. His theory is called Newton's law of universal gravitation. Later, Albert Einstein would make some improvements on this theory in his theory of relativity. What is weight? Weight is the force of gravity on an object. Our weight on Earth is how much force the Earth's gravity has on us and how hard it is pulling us toward the surface. Do objects fall at the same speed? Yes, this is called the equivalence principle. Objects of different masses will fall to the Earth at the same speed. If you take two balls of different masses to the top of a building and drop them, they will hit the ground at the same time. There is actually a specific acceleration that all objects fall at called a standard gravity, or «g». It equals 9.807 meters per second squared (m/s Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. Текст предоставлен ООО «ЛитРес». 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