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Английский язык Виктория Викторовна Мороз Любовь Федоровна Мачнева Хрестоматия состоит из 4 разделов и приложения, в которых представлены отрывки из художественных произведений (классических и современных экономической направленности), упражнения. Мачнева Л. Ф., Мороз В. В. Английский язык Introduction Данная хрестоматия предназначена для обучения студентов экономических специальностей самостоятельному чтению художественной литературы с последующей работой в аудитории. Цель данной хрестоматии – ознакомить с произведениями классической и современной английской и американской литературы, расширить лексический запас, освоить правила словообразования и приемы организации и систематизации словаря. Хрестоматия состоит из 4 разделов и приложения, включающих тексты различной степени сложности, от простых до более сложных, различных жанров, авторов и эпох. Три основные раздела предваряют свод правил, способствующих лучшему запоминанию и усвоению лексики, ряд приемов, оптимизирующих и систематизирующих этот процесс. Тексты в разделах сопровождаются упражнениями на развитие навыков работы со словарем, расширение словарного состава как общеупотребительной, так и профессиональной лексики. Раздел обзорных лексических упражнений и приложение с моделями сочетаемости некоторых слов завершают данное пособие. Хрестоматия знакомит студентов с некоторыми произведениями художественной литературы английских и американских авторов, связанных со сферой их профессиональных интересов, расширяет их кругозор. Многообразные и многочисленные упражнения, таблицы и схемы, постепенное возрастание лингвистической сложности позволяют студентам более полно освоить методы работы над текстом. 1 Learning vocabulary – general advice What does knowing a new word mean? – It’s not enough just to know the meaning of a word. You also need to know: a) what words it is usually associated with; b) whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics; c) how it is pronounced. – Try to learn new words not in isolation but in phrases. – Write down adjectives together with nouns they are often associated with and vice versa, e. g. royal family; rich vocabulary. – Write down verbs with the structure and nouns associated with them, e.g. to express an opinion. – Write down nouns in phrases, e.g. in contact with; shades of opinion. – Write down words with their prepositions, e.g. at a high level; thanks to your help. – Note any grammatical characteristics of the words you are studying. For example, note when a verb is irregular and when a noun is uncountable or is only used in the plural. – Make a note of any pronunciation problems with the words you are learning [1]. Expanding your vocabulary There are many ways that you can use a dictionary to expand your vocabulary [2]: What should you do when you come across new words? When you are reading something in English, don’t look up every new word or expression or you will soon get fed up. Only look up something that is really important for understanding the text. When you have finished reading, look back at what you have read and then perhaps look up some extra words and write down new expressions that interest you. Similarly when you listen to English don’t panic when you hear some words or expressions that you don’t know. Keep listening and the overall meaning will often become clear. When you read or listen to English it is sometimes possible to guess the meaning of a word you don’t know before you look up or ask its meaning. Decide first what part of speech the word is and then look for clues in its context or form. Learning vocabulary – aids to learning Help yourself to learn by learning associated words together Learn words with associated meaning together Learning words together that are associated in meaning is a popular and useful way of organizing your vocabulary study 1 Complete this network for the word CAT. Add as many other bubbles as you like Learn words with a grammatical association together 2 Here are some groups of words, each of which has a grammatical connection. Can you see what the connection is? What other words could you add to these groups? a) child tooth ox; b) cut split burst; c) information furniture food. Learn together words based on the same root 3 Can you add any words or expressions to these two groups? a) price priceless overpriced b) handy single-handed give me a hand Pictures and diagrams can help you learn Can you draw any picture that would help you remember the following vocabulary? Word forks are good ways of learning adjectives and verbs Look at the complete word forks below. Finish the others Organizing by word-class When you meet a synonym or an antonym of a word you already have in your book, enter it next to that word with a few notes [1]: Urban ? rural stop=cease (more formal) Making tables for word-classes is a good idea, since you can fill in the gaps over time. What do you think you may put in the remaining gaps in the table? 2 Part one 2.1 Text 1 FOR THE BLIND Mr. Stern had a small shop. Once his friend called at his shop and noticed a shabby blind on the window in his shop. He said: “Excuse me and don’t get angry with me, but you will have to buy a new blind if you want to have a lot of customers. I recommend you to change the blind as soon as possible as the old one is too bad.” “Yes, you are right. I know that I have to buy a new blind, but it is very expensive. However, I believe I shall be able to do something.” Some weeks later his friend visited his shop again, and was very glad to see a new blind. “I see you have got a nice new blind. I think you have paid a lot of money for it!” – “Oh, yes, the blind is rather expensive, but I decided to turn to my customers for help. You see, I put a box in my shop with a notice: “For the blind”. And in this way I got the money to buy this new blind.” 2.1.1 Vocabulary notes to turn to smb. For help – o6paтиться к кому-либо за помощью a blind – жалюзи blind – слепой 2.2.2 Answer the questions Why did Mr. Stern’s friend recommend him to buy a new blind? Who helped Mr. Stern to buy a new expensive blind? Why? 2.2 Text 2 SINCERE CONFESSION A ticket-collector who had worked at the railway station for forty-five years was going to retire. One day he was talking to his friends about his work. He had enjoyed everything: his friends, his manager, the work itself. There was only one thing which he didn’t like in all of it. “What is it?” the friends asked him. “Oh, the passengers, certainly the passengers.” 2.2.1 Vocabulary notes to retire – уходить в отставку, увольняться 2.3 Text 3 Bill works in a factory, and he usually comes home at half-past six every evening. He came home early last Friday, and he was very angry. He shut the door very hard, went into the living-room and sat down. His wife was in the kitchen. She came up to her husband and looked him for a few seconds. Then she said to him, “Why are you angry, Bill?” “Bus tickets cost three pence last week, but now they cost two pence,” he said. “But that isn’t bad, Bill,” his wife said. “It’s good. Going by bus is cheaper now.” “Yes, it is,” Bill said, “but I always walk to work in the mornings, and I walk home in the afternoons. Last week I saved six pence every day, but now I save four pence.” 2.3.1 Vocabulary notes to save – экономить 2.4 Text 4 FRIENDS IN BUSINESS A rich businessman was dying. Before the death he wanted to tell his partner who was in business with him some important things. So he asked his family to leave him with his partner alone. The rich man thought that his friend George was a reliable partner and a very good friend. When they were alone the man said: “I’m dying, listen please. I’ve always been bad to you. When you were away on business two years ago I took a big sum of money from the safe and never put it back. I disliked you all my life. I sold the secret of your plan to another company for a hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Oh, George, I’m very sorry.” “That’s all right,” said George. “I was not so reliable as you thought I was. It was I who put poison into your tea at lunch yesterday.” 2.4.1 Vocabulary notes to rely on (upon) – полагаться на к. -л. Reliable – надежный, заслуживающий доверия 2.5 Text 5 * * * James Rand worked for a company which sold office equipment. He came to Mr. Benson who wanted to open some new offices in New York to offer him the equipment of his company. Benson asked him about the quality of the equipment, the prices and the demand for the goods. After that he told him: “All right. Here is a letter to my New York manager, you can go to him for the order.” Rand took the letter and went to New York by train. He had talks with the manager and got a very large order on attractive terms. When he came back home he remembered about Mr. Benson’s letter. He opened the letter and read it. Mr. Benson wrote to his manager: “Get all information from this man but don’t buy his goods.” 2.5.1 Vocabulary notes equipment – оборудование demand – спрос talks – переговоры on attractive terms – на привлекательных условиях 2.6 Text 6 * * * Peter Robinson is a young Englishman. He lives in London in a small flat and works for a big company. He has been a clerk for two years. Every August he goes on holiday. Some years ago he liked going to foreign countries but now he prefers to spend two weeks at a seaside hotel in Great Britain. Sometimes he rents a room in a boarding house or goes on a camping holiday. This summer he decided to go to Brighton, a famous resort. The weather is usually warm and dry there in the summer season. Peter rented a room in a hotel. The accommodation was very expensive. He sunbathed every morning. In the evening he went to restaurants, night clubs, casinos. He had a very good time. A week later he had no money to pay for his room or to buy lunch. So he sent a telegram to his father: “No money, no funny. Sonny.” Soon he received the answer from his father: “Too bad. Too sad. Dad.” 2.6.1 Vocabulary notes boarding house – пансион, меблированные комнаты со столом accommodation – жилье 2.7 Text 7 A BUSINESS TRANSACTION One afternoon Mr. Wallis who lived far from the centre of London was returning home. It had already got dark when he came to a quiet narrow street with no people or traffic in it. Suddenly a middle-aged man stopped him and asked if he would buy a cat from him. As Mr. Wallis refused to make the purchase the man aimed a gun at him. “How much does it cost?” asked Mr. Wallis. “It’s not expensive. Five hundred pounds only”, was the reply. So Mr. Wallis had to sign a cheque for five hundred pounds and the man gave him the cat. Several years had passed since that day. Mr. Wallis decided to go shopping and called at a small shop where he had never been before. He recognized in the shopassistant the man who had sold him the white cat several years before. Mr. Wallis left the shop and returned a little later. “I’ve brought a white cat. Will you buy it?” smiled he, “It’s one of the lovely kittens of the white cat that you sold me several years ago, I recommend you to buy it”. The shop-assistant understood everything. He told Mr. Wallis that he would pay him for the cat if Mr. Wallis did not tell the police about it and if he never came to the shop again. “How much does it cost now?” he asked. “Seven hundred pounds”, was the answer, “because I want to get some interest on my money.” 2.7.1 Vocabulary notes to make a purchase – делать покупку to get some interest on (smth.) – получить проценты от (чего-л.) 2.8 Text 8 A BUSINESS TRIP TO NEW YORK Last winter Eileen went to New York on business. Her husband went with her as he had never been to New York before. On the last day of their stay in New York they checked out of the hotel in the morning. Eileen’s husband decided to do some sightseeing while she was at her last business meeting. They agreed to meet at the airport. The plane was leaving at a quarter past nine. When after the meeting Eileen went out into the street there was much snow everywhere and it was still snowing heavily. She took a taxi but it was just before Christmas and there was a terrible traffic jam. Then the car broke down. Suddenly she remembered there was a subway close to that place – that’s what the Americans call their underground trains to the airport. When she took a bus from the subway to the airport, it was almost 8.30. It wasn’t far to the airport but it was snowing still heavier and the bus went slowly. When at last she got to the airport she ran to the check-in-desk. There was a large crowd of people. One of them was her husband. “There was no need to hurry,” he said, “The snow has delayed everything. The plane is late too.” 2.8.1 Vocabulary notes to check out (ant. To check in – регистрироваться) – платить по счету в гостинице to delay – откладывать, задерживать 2.9 Text 9 A DAY OFF WORK Bill Walker works for an import-export company. Last Wednesday morning Bill rang his office at 9 o’clock and spoke to his boss Mr. Thompson. Bill told his boss that he couldn’t come to the office that day, he had a very sore throat. He was going to stay in bed but the next morning he would be able to come to work. Mr. Thompson recommended him to stay in bed until he felt well again. Mr. Thompson liked Bill very much. At 12.30 he got into his car, drove to a shop and bought some fruit for him. He went to Bill’s flat to visit him. “How is your throat?” he asked Bill. “I’m sure, I’ll be able to come in tomorrow”, Bill answered. At 3 o’clock in the afternoon Mr. Thompson locked his office door and switched on his portable television. He wanted to watch an important international football match. It was England against Brazil. Both teams were playing well, but neither of them could score a goal. The crowd were cheering and booing. It was very exciting. Then at 3.20, England scored from a penalty. Mr. Thompson jumped out of his chair. He was very excited. He was smiling happily when suddenly the camera-man showed the crowd. Mr. Thompson’s smile disappeared and he looked very angry. Bill Walker’s face, in close-up, was there on the screen. He didn’t look ill, and he didn’t sound ill. He was smiling happily and cheering wildly [3]. 2.9.1 Vocabulary notes to score a goal – забивать гол to boo – произносить неодобрительное восклицание, освистывать in close-up – крупным планом 3 Part two 3.1 Text 1. Read the text, answer the following questions SOME MORE, PLEASE Once a Frenchman went on business to Germany. He was to visit an exhibition there. His firm was interested in developing trade contacts with German firms. Though the exhibition was not very large he hoped that he would be able to find something interesting for his firm as they always exhibited latest models at such exhibitions. As the Frenchman had never been to Germany before he hoped that he would have time to go sightseeing there and would enjoy his stay in that country. He went there by an overnight train and hoped that it would not take him much time to get there. He enjoyed his trip by train. As he was travelling first class, there were only two passengers in his compartment and he was satisfied with his fellow travellers. But there was one thing which he didn't like. The fact was there was no buffetcar on the train and by the end of the journey he was very hungry. So he looked forward to having a good dinner at the station restaurant. What he wanted to do first when he arrived at Hamburg was to find a restaurant. It took him some 15 minutes to get to the nearest restaurant. "He left his coat in the cloak-room and went upstairs. The head-waiter showed him to a little table near the window. In a few minutes a waiter came up to his table and put the menu on the table. The Frenchman made his choice very quickly because there was only one word on the menu he could understand, it was "beef-steak." So he had to order beef-steak; but it was so bad the Frenchman couldn't eat it. At a table not far from him a man was eating chicken. The Frenchman wanted to have chicken too, but he didn't know how to say it in German. Soon the man finished his chicken and said to the waiter: "Some more, please." The waiter went out and a minute later came back with another plate of chicken. "Well," thought the Frenchman, "now I know how to say «chicken» in German." So he called the waiter and said in German: "Some more, please." The waiter went out and ten minutes later brought him another beef-steak. 3.1.1 Vocabulary notes to look forward to – ожидать, очень хотеть 3.1.2 Answer the questions 1 What was the purpose of the Frenchman’s visit to Germany? 2 What was he looking forward to while staying in Germany? 3 How did he like his trip by train? 4 Why was he hungry by the end of the journey? 5 What was the first thing he did at Hamburg? 6 Did he enjoy his meal at the restaurant? Why not? 7 Why didn’t he get what he required? 8 How do you think he felt when the waiter brought him another beef-steak? Did he eat it? 9 Why do you think it is extremely important to know foreign languages if you deal with foreign firms? 10 Did you go to a restaurant during your last trip to a foreign country? Who ordered meals for you? 3.2 Text 2. Read the text and answer the questions. THE LOVE OF A BUSY BUSINESSMAN (after O'Henry) Pitcher was the chief clerk in the office of Harvey Maxwell. Mr. Maxwell was a businessman. He bought and sold things. He also helped other businessmen buy and sell things. Pitcher was an important man in Maxwell's office. This morning Pitcher's face had a look of surprise on it. The clerk did not usually show his feelings, but today his boss came into the office late. It was half past nine. And he had his pretty young secretary with him. With a quick "Good morning," Maxwell hurried to his desk. Hundreds of papers waited for him there. He started working on them at once. The secretary was beautiful. She did not look or dress like a secretary. Her simple clothes and hair were most pleasant to see. And this morning her face shone with a gentle light. Her eyes were bright and full of dreams. Pitcher noticed this. He also noticed a difference in her ways this morning. She usually went straight into her office. Today she stayed near Mr. Maxwell's desk. But he did not notice her. As soon as he sat down at the desk, Maxwell became a machine. At last he saw her. "Well, what is it?" he asked sharply. His cold grey eyes looked at her. He wanted to get on with his work. "Nothing," said the secretary. She moved away with a little smile. "Mr. Pitcher," she said to the clerk. "Did Mr. Maxwell say anything about the agency yesterday?" "About getting another secretary, Miss Leslie? Yes, he did. He told me to telephone the agency. I did. I told them to send me a secretary this morning. But it's a quarter to ten now, and no one has arrived yet." "I will just continue my work then," said the secretary. "Just until the new secretary arrives." She went into her office. She hung up her hat and started to work. Perhaps you have never seen a really busy New York businessman at work. "One crowded hour of busy life," the old song says. Mr. Maxwell's hours were crowded. The minutes and seconds were fighting for a place in them. This day was one of Harvey Maxwell's busiest days. The telephone rang all the time. He was buying, selling, arranging. Visitors came in, visitors went out. The clerks in the office flew about like leaves in a strong wind. Pitcher's usually calm face still looked very surprised. Business was fast and fierce. Prices flew up and down and Maxwell had to follow them exactly. He moved among his business machines and telephones. He gave orders … he was in another world. In the middle of all this, the businessman suddenly noticed a stranger. It was a young woman with a lot of bright yellow hair. She wore a large green hat and a white coat with a black collar. Pitcher came and stood at her side. "A young lady from the agency, sir," he said. "About the job." Maxwell turned round in his big chair. His hands were full of papers. "What job?" he asked. "The job of secretary, sir," said Pitcher. "You asked me to call the agency yesterday. You wanted to hire a new secretary this morning." "Pitcher, you are going mad," said the businessman. "I do not need a new secretary. Miss Leslie has been with us for a year. I am very pleased with her. She is a very good secretary. Madam," he said to the young woman. "I am sorry. There is no job here." He turned to Pitcher. "Tell the agency that you made a mistake. Don't bring any more secretaries in here." The young woman left the office. There was an angry look on her face under the large hat. "Oh dear," thought Pitcher. "The boss has forgotten!" Business continued. Orders to buy and sell flew about like birds. Maxwell still worked like a machine. He worked quickly and exactly. This was the world of business and money. There was no time for feelings. At one o'clock the clerks went out to get something to eat. The office was a little calmer. Maxwell did not go out. Businessmen do not have time to eat in the middle of a working day. He stood by his desk. His hands were full of letters and telegrams. His pen was behind his ear. His hair hung untidily all over his face. The window of his office was open. Spring was coming to the city. Through the window came the soft, sweet smell of spring flowers. For a second Maxwell stood still. He knew that scent. His secretary always wore it. The scent brought Miss Leslie into Maxwell's busy thoughts. Suddenly the world of business appeared very unimportant. She was in the next office and he had something to say to her. Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. Текст предоставлен ООО «ЛитРес». Прочитайте эту книгу целиком, купив полную легальную версию (https://www.litres.ru/v-v-moroz-8599388/angliyskiy-yazyk/?lfrom=334617187) на ЛитРес. Безопасно оплатить книгу можно банковской картой Visa, MasterCard, Maestro, со счета мобильного телефона, с платежного терминала, в салоне МТС или Связной, через PayPal, WebMoney, Яндекс.Деньги, QIWI Кошелек, бонусными картами или другим удобным Вам способом.
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