Public Relations in the contemporary world: Insight into Profession М. А. Мироненко Ольга А. Широбокова Наталия Владимировна Лаштабова В учебном пособии представлены задания, упражнения и справочный материал, необходимые для изучения основ истории и развития пиара в современном мире по углубленному курсу иностранного (английского) языка. Лаштабова Н. В., М. Мироненко, Ольга Широбокова Public Relations in the contemporary world: Insight into Profession Введение «Public Relations in the contemporary world: Insight into Profession» – учебное пособие к углубленному курсу иностранного (английского) языка имеет целью систематизацию и обобщение материала по истории развития связей с общественностью в современном англоязычном мире для формирования коммуникативных навыков. Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов-бакалавров второго курса факультета журналистики очной и заочной формы обучения. Оно может быть использовано в качестве основного средства обучения, содержащего практический материал по углубленному курсу изучения иностранного (английского) языка. Настоящее пособие посвящено истории развития средств массовой информации с древнейших времен до наших дней, а также особенностям функционирования связей с общественностью за рубежом. Все представленные в данном пособии темы снабжены упражнениями и практическими заданиями, необходимыми для тренировки коммуникативных навыков и усвоения материала по данным темам. Пособие также содержит материал об особенностях написания и оформления писем, статей, резюме, эссе на английском языке. 1 History of the media 1. Read the proper names and say what you know about them. If they are unknown for you, find some information in the text. John Peter Zenger Sir William Cosby Thomas Paine Benjamin Day Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst 2. Read and translate the text History of the media America's earliest media audiences were quite small. These were the colonies’ upper class and community leaders – the people who could read and who could afford to buy newspapers. The first regular newspaper was the Boston News-letter, a weekly started in 1704 by the city's postmaster, John Campbell. Like most papers of the time, it published shipping information and news from England. Most Americans, out in the fields, rarely saw a newspaper. They depended on travelers or passing townsmen for this news. When rebellious feelings against Britain began to spread in the 1700s, the first battles were fought in the pages of newspapers and pamphlets. Historians consider the birth of America's free-press tradition to have begun with the 1734 trial of John Peter Zenger. Zenger, publisher of the New York Weekly Journal, had boldly printed stories that attacked and insulted Sir William Cosby, the colony' unpopular royal governor. Cosby ordered Zenger's arrest on a charge of seditious libel. As the King's representative, royal governors had the power to label any report they disliked – true or not – "libelous," or damaging to the government's reputation and promoting public unrest. Zenger's lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, argued that "the truth of the facts" was reason enough to print a story. The American jury agreed, ruling that Zenger had described Cosby's administration truthfully. Perhaps one of America's greatest political journalists was one of its first, Thomas Paine. Paine's stirring writings, urging independence made him the most persuasive "media" figure of the American Revolution against Britain in 1776. His pamphlets sold thousands of copies and helped mobilize the rebellion. By the early 1800s, the United States had entered a period of swift technological progress that would mark the real beginning of "modern media." The inventions of the steamship, the railroad and the telegraph brought communications out of the age of windpower and horses. The high-speed printing press was developed, driving down the cost of printing. Expansion of the educational system taught more Americans to read and sparked their interest in the world. Publishers realized that a profitable future belonged to cheap newspapers with large readerships and increased advertising. In 1833 a young printer named Benjamin Day launched the New York Sun, the first American paper to sell for a penny. Until then, most papers had cost six cents. Day's paper paid special attention to lively human interest stories and crime. Following Day's lead, the press went from a small upper class readership to mass readership in just a few years. It was a time that shaped a breed of editors who set the standard for generations of American journalists. Many of these men were hard-headed reformers who openly sided with the common man, opposed slavery and backed expansion of the frontier. They combined idealism with national pride, and their papers became the means by which great masses of new immigrants were taught the American way of life. Competition for circulation and profits was fierce. The rivalry of two publishers dominated American journalism at the end of the century. The first was Joseph Pulitzer (1847 – 1911), a Hungarian immigrant whose Pulitzer prizes have become America's highest newspaper and book honors. His papers, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the New York World, fought corporate greed and government corruption, introduced sports coverage and comics, and entertained the public with an endless series of promotional stunts. By 1886 the World had a circulation of 250,000, making it the most successful newspaper up; to that time. The second publisher was William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951), who took Pulitzer's formula to new highs – and new lфws – in the San Francisco Examiner and the New York Journal Hearst's brand of outrageous sensationalism was dubbed "yellow journalism" after the paper's popular comic strip, "The Yellow Kid." Modern media critics would be horrified at Hearst's coverage of the Spanish-American War over Cuba in 1898. For months before the United States declared war, the Journal stirred public opinion to near hysteria with exaggerations and outright lies. When Hearst's artist in Cuba found no horrors to illustrate, Hearst sent back the message: "Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." Pulitzer and Hearst symbolized an era of highly personal journalism that faded early in this century. The pressure for large circulation created one of today's most important press standards: objective, or unbiased, reporting. Newspapers wanted to attract readers of all views, not drive them away with one-sided stories. That meant editors began to make sure all sides of a story were represented. Wider access to the telephone helped shape another journalistic tradition: the race to be first with the latest news. The swing to objective reporting was the key to the emergence of The New York Times. Most journalists consider the Times the nation's most prestigious newspaper. Under Adolph S. Ochs, who bought the paper in 1896, the Times established itself as a serious alternative to sensationalist journalism. The paper stressed coverage of important national and international events – a tradition which still continues. Today the Times is used as a major reference tool by American libraries, and is standard reading for diplomats, scholars and government officials. The New York Times is only one of many daily newspapers that have become significant simpers of public opinion. Among the most prominent are The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Boston Globe, and the Christian Science Monitor. The Miami Herald, for instance, responded to the needs of its city's influx of Spanish-speaking residents by presenting extensive coverage of Latin America and printing a separate Spanish edition. Satellite technology has made possible the first genuinely nationwide newspapers – from the sober, thorough business paper, the Wall Street Journal, to the bright colors and personality orientation of USA Today. Another recent phenomenon is the proliferation of supermarket tabloids, weeklies sold chiefly at grocery store check-out lines. Although they look like newspapers, these publications carry little hard news and stress items about celebrities, human interest stories about children and pets, and diet and health tips. The leading tabloid, the National Enquirer, claims a circulation of more than 4,000,000. The total number of daily newspapers in the United States is shrinking – from 1748 in 1970 to 1,642 in 1988. In 1923, there were 503 communities with more than one daily newspaper. By 1988, only 49 cities had more than one paper. There are several reasons for this trend. The movement of people from cities to suburbs led to the demise of some city dailies and the creation of weekly suburban newspapers that emphasized local community happenings and drew revenues from local advertisers. And members of busy households in which both husband and wife worked outside the home found they had less time to read and often stopped buying an afternoon newspaper. But the most important reason was probably the growing popularity of television. While newspapers are read in 62 million of the nation's 91 million households, 98 per cent of all American homes are equipped with at least one television. And a Roper Organization poll found that 65 per cent of Americans use television as their primary source of news. Since newspapers cannot report the news as quickly as radio and television, many papers have changed their emphasis, concentrating on features, personality profiles and in-depth news analysis rather than fast-breaking headline stories. 3. Translate and transcribe the following words, learn them by heart. Find the sentences where they were used and write them out. Audience, to afford, postmaster, rebellious, pamphlet, to attack, to insult, representative, to label, reputation, lawyer, political, to urge, persuasive, telegraph, communication, expansion, profitable, advertising, frontier, idealism, circulation, rivalry, outrageous, sensationalism, “yellow journalism”, exaggeration, prestigious, significant, satellite technology, celebrity, tabloid, suburban, emphasis. 4. Fill in the gaps using the words from the given below. Change the form if necessary. Suburban, celebrity, “yellow journalism”, pamphlet, telegraph, postmaster, prestigious, advertising, satellite technology, circulation. 1. When … was invented, communication was changed forever. 2. The newspapers, that contain news about celebrities are called … 3. Publishers quickly realized the profit of … and increased it. 4. John Campbell was a … in Boston, who started the first regular newspaper. 5. The most important factor in getting profit from a newspaper is its … 6. News about … and politicians always attracted the public attention. 7. The development of computers and … brought the media to a new level. 8. The local community events which are of small importance for city-dwellers are published in … newspapers. 9. Time is considered the most … newspaper of all times. 10. In 1700s the battles based on the rebellious feeling against Britain brought to life … on pages of the newspapers. 5. Find the English equivalents for the following phrases: Лидер общин, информация о доставке, бунтарский дух, битвы на страницах газет, традиция свободной прессы, королевский губернатор колонии, арест по обвинению в клевете, наклеить любой ярлык, вредить репутации губернатора, содействовать проявление общественного недовольства, правдиво описывать, взволнованные статьи, продаваться многотысяным тиражом, подогревать возмущение, быстрое технологическое развитие, снижать стоимость печати, увеличивать количество рекламы, выпускать газеты стоимостью 1 пенни в продажу, привлекать внимание к невымышленным историям и преступлениям, настоящие реформаторы, выступать против рабства, внедрять в печать новости о спорте, комиксы, сместить акцент. 6. Match the definitions with the words 7. Answer the questions. 1. Why did the news spread slowly in America’s first colonies? 2. What was the first regular newspaper? Who was the editor? 3. Who were the greatest America’s political journalists of the XVIII century? 4. How did the swift technological progress influence the press? 5. Why did the publishers increase advertising? 6. Why was William Randolph Hurst considered a prominent publisher? 7. Why has the New York Times become one of the most significant newspapers? 8. What are the reasons of the shrinking number of newspapers in the USA? 8. Say how these dates are connected with the history of the media. 1. 1704 2. 1734 3. Early 1800 4. 1833 5. 1896 6. 1988 9. Translate the following phrases. Pay attention to the use of prepositions. Find the sentences where they were used in the text and read them out. On a charge for To depend on smb for smth To enter _ a period To belong to To pay attention to To fight _ government corruption To be horrified at smth The reason for smth To be equipped with smth 10. Fill in the prepositions. 1. He depends … his journalists … the latest news coverage. 2. A famous politician was arrested … a charge … bribery. 3. In 2000 the media entered … a period of information technologies. 4. In the XIX century the public’s view belonged … the cheap newspapers. 5. It’s important to pay special attention … lively human interest stories and the crime. 6. St. Louis Post-Dispatch fought … corporate greed and government corruption. 7. Media critics often are horrified at the amount of crimes coverage in most newspapers. 8. The reason … most of the publication trends in journalism are connected with money and celebrities. 9. Practically every home is equipped … at least one TV set. 11. Read the quotations, translate and comment on them. Start your phrase with: Example:” Joseph Pulitzer, who introduced the techniques of “new journalism”, said:…” Find some information about the personality if necessary. Joseph Pulitzer (1847-1911). “An able, disinterested, public-spirited press, with trained intelligence to know the right and courage to do it, can preserve that public virtue without which popular government is a sham and a mockery”. William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951). “Don't be afraid to make a mistake, your readers might like it”. Benjamin Day (1810-1889). “Well, I want you to know how much I appreciate this. Really”. 2 The press in the Roman Empire and in medieval Europe 1. Read the proper names and titles and say what you know about them. If they are unknown for you, find some information in the text. Julius Caesar Richard Fawkes Acta Diurna The Venetian Republic The Mercurius Gallobelgious Herald Express Observer Guardian Standard Argus 2. Read and translate the text The Roman Empire. The urge to inform the public of official developments and pronouncements had been a characteristic of most autocratic rules. This urge was fulfilled in ancient Rome by the Acta Diurna ("Daily Events"), a daily gazette dating from 59 ВС and attributed in origin to Julius Caesar. Handwritten copies of this early journal were posted in prominent places in Rome and in the provinces with the clear intention of feeding the populace with official information. The Acta Diurna was not, however, restricted to proclamations, edits, or even to political decisions taken in the Roman Senate, the actions of which were reported separately in the Acta Senatus (literally "Proceedings of the State"). The typical Acta Diurna might contain news of gladiatorial contests, astrological omens, notable marriages, births and deaths, public appointments, and trials and executions. Such reading matter complemented the usual fare of military news and plebiscite results also given in the Acta Diurna and presaged the future popularity of such newspaper filler and horoscopes, the obituary column, and the sports pages. Medieval Europe. In Europe, the impetus for regular publications of news was lacking for several centuries after the break up of the Roman Empire. The increased output of books and pamphlets made possible by the development of the printing press in the 16th century did not include any newspapers, properly defined. The neatest form was the newssheet, which was not printed but handwritten by official scribes and read aloud by town criers. News was also contained in the news pamphlet, which flourished in the 16th century as a means of disseminating information on particular topics of interest. One such pamphlet, printed in England by Richard Fawkes, and dated September 1513, was a description of the Battle of Flodden Field. Titled "Trew Encountre", this four-leaved pamphlet gave an eyewitness account of the battle together with a list of the English heroes involved. By the final decade of the 15th century, publication of newsbooks was running at more than 20 a year in England alone, matching a regular supply on the Continent. Authors und printers escaped official censorship or penalty by remaining anonymous or cultivating a certain obscurity for it took a long time before the pamphlets came to the attention of the authorities. In any case the topics most frequently chosen for coverage – scandals, feats or heroism or marvelous occurrences – were mainly nonpolitical and could not be regarded as a threat to the powerful. Governments in various Countries were already in the vanguard of news publishing for propaganda purposes. The Venetian republic set a precedent by charging an admission fee of one gazeta (3/4 – three fourths of a penny) to public readings of the latest news concerning the war with Turkey (1563), this recognizing a commercial demand for news, even on the part of the illiterate. The term gazette was to become common among latest newspapers sold commercially. Another popular title was to be Mercury (the messenger of the gods). The Mercurius Gallobelgicus (1588 – 1638) was among the earliest of a number of periodical summaries of the news that began to appear in Europe in the late 16th century. Newspaper names like Mercury, Herald and Express have always been popular, suggesting the immediacy of freshness of the reading matter. Other names, such as Observer, Guardian, Standard and Argus stress the social role played by the newspapers in a democratic society. Newspaper development can be seen in three phases: first, the sporadic forerunners, gradually moving towards regular publications; second, more or less regular journals but liable to suppression and subject to censorship and licensing, and, third, a phase in which direct censorship is abandoned but attempts at Control continue through taxation, bribery and prosecution. Thereafter, some degree of independence has followed. 3. Translate and transcribe the following words and expressions, learn them by heart. Find the sentences where they were used and write them out. Pronouncement, handwritten copy, to restrict, proclamation, appointment, to compliment, development, printing press, newssheet, to disseminate, eyewitness account, final decade, to escape censorship, to remain anonymous, a threat to the powerful, to be in the vanguard of news, to set a precedent, to charge an admission fee, to recognize a commercial demand for news, illiterate, title, periodical, regular publication, to abandon, bribery. 4. Fill in the gaps using the words from the given below. Change the form if necessary. Development, eyewitness, to compliment, bribery, to remain anonymous, proclamation, final decade, to set a precedent, illiterate, periodical. 1. The readers could meet with an …account of the battle in “Trew Encountre”. 2. The news about the war with Turkey …: the gazette was charged an admission fee for reading the news. 3. The Acta Diurna accepted … and also published the news about the political decisions in the Roman Senate. 4. The 16 century invention of the printing press made the … of the books very quick. 5. Even the … people in Venice had a great desire to know the latest news. 6. In the 16 century there were very few … newspapers that published the summaries of the news. 7. The usual news … the information about the births and deaths, notable marriages and public appointments. 8. The control over the newspapers was taken by means of taxation, … and prosecution. 9. Many authors remained … in order to avoid punishment and pursuit. 5. Find the English equivalents for the following phrases: Ежедневная газета, значимые места, четкое намерение, политические решения, поединки гладиаторов, распад Римской империи, городские глашатаи, процветал в 16 веке, свидетельства очевидца, избегать цензуры и наказания, чудесное событие, угроза властьимущим, коммерческий спрос на новости, свежесть и актуальность материала для чтения. 6. Match the definitions with the words. 7. Answer the questions. 1. What is the country where the first press appeared? 2. What was the first handwritten journal? 3. Which news was described in the Acta Diurna? 4. Did the Acta Diurna describe only social news or military news as well? 5. What was the reason of the break up of the news regular publication? 6. Was the newssheet a written or printed copy? 7. What was a news pamphlet? 8. What was “Trew Encountre”? 9. How did most authors escape censorship in the Middle Ages? 10. What gazette did the Venetian republic charge a fee for? 11. What were most popular titles for the gazettes? 12. Why was the term “gazette” used instead of a “newspaper”? 13. What are the three phases of newspaper development? 8. Translate the following phrases. Pay attention to the use of prepositions. Find the sentences where they were used in the text and read them out. To date from (59 BC) To attribute in origin to smb To contain news of contests The impetus for smth A means of disseminating information On particular topics of interest An account of the battle In any case A degree of independence. 9. Fill in the proper prepositions. 1. The archaeologists found a clay plate, dating … 30 BC, but concluded that it was a fake. 2. The earliest gazette attributed … origin … Julius Caesar. 3. An ancient gazette contained news … notable marriages, public appointments and trials. 4. The impetus … regular publications was lacking due to several reasons. 5. A gazette was a means …disseminating information written in a form of a pamphlet. 6. Only the news … particular topics … interest, such as politics, battles, marriages could appear in the medieval gazette. 7. “Trew Encountre” countained an account … the battle and the list of heroes involved. 8. …any case the topics for publications were more or less similar: scandals, heroism or marvelous occurrences. 9. In the Middle Ages the degree… independence in the press was high due to the fact that many authors were anonymous. 10. Comment on the following quotations: Albert Camus (1913-1960) “A free press can of course be good or bad, but, most certainly, without freedom it can never be anything but bad… Freedom is nothing else but a chance to be better, whereas enslavement is certainly of the worse” Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) “The press is the best instrument for enlightening the mind of man, and improving him as a rational, moral and social being”. Franklin D. Roosevelt “If in other lands the press and books and literature of all kinds are censored, we must redouble our efforts here to keep them free”. 3 Books 1. Read and translate the text. Books Despite fears that the so-called electronic media – especially radio, television, and videos – might damage book publishing, the opposite seems to be true. Book sales since the introduction of television have increased considerably, well beyond the increase in population. In fact, the U.S. leads in the number of books read per capita. These books range from the most recent best seller or biography to histories, gardening and cookbooks, or technical volumes and encyclopedias. Several reasons have been offered to account for this fact. First, American schools have traditionally stressed and tried to develop a "love of reading", to make it a habit. This general educational emphasis has been successful. One notes how many people are reading hooks – not only newspapers or magazines – in city buses, airports, during: lunch breaks, or on the beach. Secondly, public libraries have always been very active in communities throughout the country. Here, too, the general policy has been to get books to people rather than to protect the books from people. A favorite way of raising money for libraries is to have thousands of used books donated by the community and then to have a book sale ("Any five for $11"). The money made in this fashion goes to buy new books for the library. Such popular community fund-raising activities also increase the feeling among people that the library is theirs. The third and probably most important reason is that there are no laws which protect book sellers or fix prices. Anyone can sell new and used books at discount and sale prices, and just about everyone does. Very early, books were sold every where, in drug stores and supermarkets, department stores and 24-hour shops, through book clubs and by colleges, as well as in regular book stores. Many university book stores are student-owned and run. They operate on a nonprofit basis, that is, all profits go towards keeping the prices of books down, for paying the student employees, and often to support student scholarships and other financial aid. Then, there are the large "paperback supermarkets* located in most shopping centers, which sell mainly paperback books on a variety of subjects. These, too, have done a great deal to keep the book trade healthy and growing. Nationwide radio and television shows, new movies, and filmed versions of books have often helped to create spectacular book sales. 2. Transcribe and translate the words below. Television, per capita, considerably, to range, biography, technical, encyclopedia, to account, emphasis, magazines, throughout, to increase, law, discount, to operate, nonprofit, employees, to support, scholarship, financial, aid, variety, trade, healthy, growing, nationwide, version, to create, spectacular. 3. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expressions and read them out. Продажа книг, увеличение населения, на душу населения, биография, энциклопедия, традиционно, обращать особое внимание, книги со скидкой, супермаркеты, где продаются книги в бумажном переплете, эффективные распродажи книг. 4. Fill in the gaps using one of these words. 1. These books… from the most recent best seller or biography to histories. 2. Several reasons have been offered to … for this fact. 3. A favourite way of raising money for libraries is to have thousands of used books … by the community and then to have a book sale. 4. Anyone can sell new and used books … and sale prices. 5. Then there are the large … located in most shopping centers. (range, to account, donated, at discount, paperback supermarkets). 5. Fill in the prepositions. 1. In fact the U.S. leads … the number of books per capita. 2. Several reasons have been offered to account … this fact. 3. A favourite way of raising money for libraries is to have thousands of used books donated … the community and then to have a book sale. 4. Then, there are the large “paperback supermarkets” located … most shopping centers, which sell mainly paperback books on a variety of subjects. 5. Secondly, public libraries have always been very active … communities … the country. (in (3), by, for, throughout). 6. Read the definition and say it in one word 1. The people who live in an area. 2. To give something such as money or goods to an organization, esp. to a school, hospital, political party. 3. A reduction in the price of smth. 4. Money that you make by selling smth., or from your business especially the money that remains after you have paid all your business costs. 5. Someone who is paid regularly to work for a person or an organization. 6. Extremely impressive. 7. In all parts of a country. A collection or number of people, things, ideas ets. that are all different from one another. (community, donate, discount, profit, employee, spectacular, nationwide, variety). 7. Prepare 3 sentences in Russian with the words from ex.5 for your group mates to translate 8. Answer the following questions 1. Why have the books sales increased considerably since the introduction of television? 2. What is the range of books which are read by people? 3. What are the principal reasons of the increase of reading? 4. What do you know about new American system of development of “love of reading”? Is it successful? 5. Do libraries take an active part in the development of “love of reading”? 6. What can you say about the laws which protect book sellers or fix prices? Are they necessary in your opinion? 7. What is the basic role of mass media in the books’ sale? 4 Magazines 1. Read the proper names and titles and say what you know about them. If they are unknown for you, find some information in the text. National Geographic Reader’s Digest Cosmopolitan, Vogue Time Newsweek Scientific American Psychology Today U.S. News and World Report The Atlantic Monthly Harvard Educational Review Saturday Review The New Republic National Review Foreign Affairs Smithsonian The New Yorker 2. Read and translate the text There are over 11,000 magazines and periodicals in the United States. More than 4,000 of them appear monthly, and over 1,300 are published each week. They cover all topics and interests, from art and architecture to tennis, from aviation and gardening to computers and literary criticism. Quite a few have international editions, are translated into other languages, or have "daughter" editions in other countries. Among the many internationals are National Geographic, Reader's Digest, Cosmopolitan, Vogue, Time, Newsweek, Scientific American, and Psychology Today. The weekly newsmagazines – the best known are Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News & World Report – serve as a type of national press. They also have considerable international impact, above all Time. This newsmagazine appears each week in several international editions. There are some for various parts of the United States, for the Far East, for Australia, for Europe, and so on. Time claims that although the advertising changes in each edition, the content remains the same internationally. This is not quite true: in the U.S. editions, for instance, there is no section called "European Notes." In any case, no other single news publication is read so widely by so many people internationally as is Time. There are two other reasons why Time has such international influence. First, several other newsmagazines were modeled on Time. Among these are the leading newsmagazines in France, Germany, and Italy. Secondly, Time also sells news, news features, interviews, photographs, graphics, and charts to other publications throughout the world. Feature stories that first appear in Time are therefore echoed in many other publications in many other countries. The newsmagazines are all aimed at the average, educated reader. There are also many periodicals which treat serious educational, political, and cultural topics at length. The best known of these include The Atlantic Monthly, Harvard Educational Review, Saturday Review, The New Republic, National Review, Foreign Affairs, Smithsonian, and, of course, The New Yorker. Such widely read periodicals, along with the hundreds of professional journals, provide a broad and substantial forum for serious discussion. Again, a lot of what first appears in these publications is often reprint internationally or in book form. Many of the long The New Yorker essays, for example, have later appeared in shortened form in publications such as England's The Observer Magazine or Germany's Die Zeit. There is a strong market for such serious publications. National Geographic has an average circulation of over 10 million, Consumer Reports some 3 million, Smithsonian (published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C.) over 2 million copies, Scientific American (U.S. edition) over 700,000, and Saturday Review – and The New Yorker over half a million each. More popular and less demanding publications, such as Family Circle, Woman's Day, or National Enquirer, of course, have a huge readership and sell over 4.5 million copies of each issue. Altogether, there are about 60 magazines in the United States that sell over 1 million copies per issue each, and roughly the same number with more than 500,000 copies per issue. 3. Translate and transcribe the following words and expressions, learn them by heart. Find the sentences where they were used and write them out. Magazine, periodical, to publish, topic, criticism, edition, weekly, considerable, impact, various, to claim, content, for instance, single, reason, influence, leading, graphics, throughout, to echo, average, political, substantial, discussion, essay, to shorten, publication, circulation, to demand, readership, issue. 4. Fill in the gaps using the words from the given below. Change the form if necessary. Daughter edition, to claim, average, discussion, publication, issue, various, content, edition, criticism. 1. Many international newspapers and magazines have … in different countries of the world. 2. The editors … that the topics of the articles remain the same rarely, but the general idea of the magazine never changes. 3. The magazines for women are aimed at an … woman, depending on her style of life only. 4. Professional journals provide the readers with the field for serious … about the topics of interest: business, finance, politics or other. 5. The … of the story about a poor African family was banned because of the false facts: the journalist opened his secret to his colleague and then the truth was discovered. 6. Every … of this magazine contains information about the celebrities, popular movies, music and other information. 7. You can’t judge a person by the type of the magazine he buys from time to time: people change their mind often and choose … subjects. 8. He never liked the … of popular magazines, in fact he considered it all waste of time and money. 9. If you want to be in staff of … of a popular newspaper, you should know at least two foreign languages and be a skillful journalist. 10. Few editors can stand …: they can follow the advice of journalists of a higher rank or their experienced colleagues. 5. Match the definitions with the words. 6. Answer the questions. 1. Do the newspapers differ, depending on how often they are issued? What is the reason for this division? 2. What topics do the American newspapers cover? 3. Are they national American editions? 4. What means “daughter” edition? Do Russian newspapers or magazines have such editions? 5. What are the most famous American newsmagazines? 6. What kind of impact does Time have? Does it have any “daughter” editions? 7. What can you say about the content of Time? 8. Is this newspaper the same all over the world? 9. Are there any reasons for such influence of Time? 10. Where does it have its copies? 11. What is the usual reader of the newsmagazines? 12. What do the professional periodicals provide? 13. Do the articles from these newsmagazines appear in any other form? 14. What is the usual circulation for these newsmagazines? 7. Translate the following phrases. Pay attention to the use of prepositions. Find the sentences where they were used in the text and read them out. To translate into a language To be modeled on Time To be aimed at the average reader To provide a forum for serious discussion To sell over 1 million copies per issue. 8. Fill in the proper prepositions. 1. According … the statistics, most European magazines were modeled… time. 2. All newspapers have their own readers: … example, Cosmopolitan is aimed … a fashionable single woman. 3. Cheap newspapers sell … million copies daily. 4. Most international editions are translated … foreign languages … order to provide the reader … the most important information worldwide. 5. Such serious periodicals as New Yorker or Time provide a forum … serious discussions … the eternal problems … economics, finance, politics and culture. 9. Comment on the following quotations: Find out who the quotes’ authors are and be ready to share the information with your groupmates. Pay attention to some useful formulas in Exercise 10 used when contrasting your ideas, guessing, disagreeing and saying “No” nicely. Richard Stengel “They are learning while they are doing which is how young people are learning today, and I think it’s a fantastic place for them”. David Remnick “98 % of the people who get the magazine say they read the cartoons first – and the other 2 % are lying”. “What stores are around, what stores aren't around, what advertisers want to present as an ideal woman or man, passing prejudices, things that you would never say now that you could say then”. Chris Johns “We want you to find stories that are relevant, [that] you can apply directly to your life. Surprising, in-depth, contextual stories that help us make good decisions about the future”. Kate White “We try not to be all things to all women. You'll never find anything about babies in our magazine, except what a single reader might be interested in.” 10. Useful Formulas Saying 'No' Nicely Sometimes you need to say no when someone makes a suggestion, offers something or asks you to do something for them. Of course, saying just 'no' can be rather rude. Here are some of the most common ways to say 'no' nicely – or at least not rudely. Would you like to see a film tonight? I'm afraid I can't go out tonight. I've got a test tomorrow. Sorry, but I don't particularly like Chinese food. I'd really rather not take a walk this afternoon. Would you like to come to the museum with us? Thank you, but it's not my idea of a fun afternoon out. Let's go for a drive Sorry, I'm not really fond of driving for the fun of it. Why don't you stay the night? That's very kind of you, but I really have to get back to the city. NOTE: Notice how we often say 'thank you' in some way before refusing the offer. When someone makes an offer it is polite to first thank that person and then say no, often offering an excuse for not wanting or being able to do something. Just saying 'no' is considered very rude behavior indeed! Disagreeing Here are a number of useful phrases used when disagreeing or expressing another opinion. Notice that a number of these expressions employ the first or second conditional. I wouldn't do that. I would… But if we… I'm afraid I have to disagree with you. Don't get me wrong, … Even so, if… Don't forget that… Very true, but… Examples: I wouldn't do that. I'd speak to the teacher first and see what she says. But if we don't make those investments, we'll risk losing market share. Don't get me wrong, I just think we should look at some other options before making a decision. Even so, if we change classes this late, we might not get a passing grade. Don't forget that you still need to finish all your homework BEFORE you can do that. Very true, but we still need to get the garden in shape before building a new deck. Contrasting Ideas There are a number of formulas used when contrasting ideas in English. Here are some of the most common: We'd love to stay for dinner, but we have got to get going. They decided to stay in the area, in spite of their problems with the local residents. Despite the difficulties of a long journey, Peter decided to visit India. Getting a good job is hard work, however, most people eventually find one with patience. There were a number of people who came, although the hotels were not equipped to handle them all. Guessing There are a number of ways to guess in English. Here are some of the most common: • I'd say he's about ready to quit his job. Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. Текст предоставлен ООО «ЛитРес». 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