Сетевая библиотекаСетевая библиотека
Английский язык. Speaking 1 ОГЭ, ЕГЭ Яна Малова Представленное пособиепредназначено для преподавателей, занимающихся подготовкой учащихся 8 – 11 классов к сдаче ЕГЭ и ОГЭ по английскому языку, а также для школьников, самостоятельно готовящихся к экзаменам. Использовать представленные рекомендации можно как при работе с учащимися индивидуально, так и при групповой работе. Английский язык Speaking 1 ОГЭ, ЕГЭ Яна Малова © Яна Малова, 2020 ISBN 978-5-4498-5514-5 Создано в интеллектуальной издательской системе Ridero ВВЕДЕНИЕ «Говорение» – один из разделов ЕГЭ и ОГЭ по английскому языку. Выполняя задания данного раздела, учащиеся показывают, насколько правильно у них сформированы навыки устной речи: – Фонетическое оформление (произношение звуков), – Используемый словарный запас, – Используемые грамматические структуры, – Построение логичного высказывания и т. д. Именно с помощью заданий данного типа оценивается то, насколько умело выпускники школ применяют полученные знания на практике, владеют лексикой английского языка, знают правила, в соответствии с которыми языковые единицы сочетаются. Максимально за выполнение заданий из этого раздела можно получить 20 баллов. Раздел «Говорение» ЕГЭ по английскому языку представлен четырьмя заданиями, которые отличаются в соответствии с их целями. 1 задание. Цель – проверка фонетического оформления речи – произношение звуков английского языка, интонационное оформление предложений, а также техника чтения. 2 задание. Цель – проверка сформированности навыков построения вопросительных предложений. Вопрос должен иметь правильную грамматическую форму. Он должен быть правильно оформлен фонетически и интонационно. 3 задание (повышенный уровень). Цель – проверить сформированность навыков построения монологического высказывания, в том числе владение лексикой и правильной ее сочетаемостью в соответствии с коммуникативной задачей. 4 задание (высокий уровень). Цель – проверить сформированность навыков построения сравнительного монологического высказывания. Таким образом, большая часть заданий в разделе посвящена оцениванию способностей учащихся правильно произносить отдельные звуки, а также сочетания нескольких букв, владеть навыками быстрого чтения, при котором сохраняется правильность форм слов, словосочетаний и разнообразных предложений. Именно в этих умениях заключается залог успеха при выполнении заданий. В данном пособии будут рассмотрены основные приемы работы учителя при подготовке учащихся к выполнению первого задания данного раздела при сдаче ЕГЭ и ОГЭ по английскому языку. Работа над совершенствованием навыков чтения ведется в соответствии с двумя методиками развития техники чтения и понимания текста: 1. чтение текстов без пробелов, а также с пробелами в неправильных местах. 2. чтение текстов, слова в которых перевернуты задом наперед. Еинетч вотскет зеб волеборп —еиненжарпу ан укворинерт хынвитпада йетсонбосопс агзом. Чтениесл овзадомнапер едэтоод ноизупраж ненийнаосвое ниенавы каскорочтен ия. Благо даряем увы учите сьсосредотач ивать сяисам о на блюде нию. Чи тайт е попер еменно страницы – внормаль номрежи меиза дом наперед. По нятька к читать за дом напер едпомогутда нныевсборник еупражнения. Представленное пособие предназначено для преподавателей, занимающихся подготовкой учащихся 8 – 11 классов к сдаче ЕГЭ и ОГЭ по английскому языку, а также для школьников, самостоятельно готовящихся к экзаменам. Использовать представленные рекомендации можно как при работе с учащимися индивидуально, так и при групповой работе. ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Данное пособие включает в себя два раздела. В первом читатели найдут тексты для тренировки навыков чтения, составленные в соответствии с тебованиями к сдаче ОГЭ, а также ВПР. Таким образом, на их основе может вестись работа на начальных этапах подготовки к ЕГЭ. Второй раздел представляет усложненные тексты, работа с которыми рекомендована для учашихся, готовящихся к сдаче ЕГЭ. Каждый текст представлен в 5 вариантах: 1. Исходный текст, 2. Текст, в котором отдельные слова написаны задом наперед, 3. Текст, в котором между словами имеются неправильные, ложные пробелы, 4. Текст, написанный полностью задом наперед (рекомендуется для самостоятельной работы как преподавателя, так и ученика, также может быть использован и в случае, когда подготовка к экзамену не требуется, но есть цель усовершенствовать имеющиеся навыки чтения)? 5. Текст, написанный полностью задом наперед с ложными прбелами. В зависимости от степени сложности того или иного текста, количество ложных пробелов, а также перевернутых задом наперед слов может варьироваться. РАЗДЕЛ 1. ТЕКСТЫ ФОРМАТА ОГЭ, ВПР Text 1 Today it is hard to imagine Moscow being dark at night. Yet, the central streets of the city became bright only in 1730. Before then, Muscovites had to keep candles burning in the windows for passers-by. Most people also carried individual oil lamps when they walked late. During the summer months, candles and oil lamps were not allowed because of the risk of fire. Later, gas lanterns appeared. They were rather effective but the real progress started later, with electric lamps. 448 electric lamps were fixed in the centre of Moscow a century ago. At present, Moscow has a modern system of street lights with electronic control. Today it is drah to imagine Moscow gnieb dark at night. Tey, the central streets of the city emaceb bright only ni 1730. Before neht, Muscovites had ot keep candles burning in ehtswodniw for passers-by. Tsom people also carried individual lio lamps when they walked etal. During the remmus months, candles and oil lamps erew not allowed because fo the risk of fire. Later, sag lanterns appeared. Yeht were rather effective tub the real progress detrats later, with electric spmal. 448 electric lamps were dexif in the ertnec of Moscow a century ago. Ta present, Moscow sah a modern system of street sthgil with electronic lortnoc. To dayit is hardto im agine Mos cowbeing darka tnight. Yet, the centralstreets of thecitybe came brighton ly in 1730. Beforethen, Muscov ites hadtokeep candles burningin thewin dows for passers-by. Mostpe ople al socar riedindiv idual oillamps whenthey walk edlate. Duringthe sum mermon ths, candle sand oillamps wereno tallow edbec auseoft he riskoffire. La ter, gaslantern sap pear ed. They we rerather ef fectivebut the realprogress startedlater, wi thelectric lamps. 448 ele ctricla mpsw ere fixedin th e centre o fMoscow a centuryago. A tp resent, Moscowhasa m odernsyste m ofstreetl ight swith ele ctroniccontrol. .lortnoc cinortcele htiw sthgil teerts fo metsys nredom a sah wocsoM, tneserp tA. oga yrutnec a wocsoM fo ertnec eht ni dexif erew spmal cirtcele 844.spmal cirtcele htiw, retal detrats ssergorp laer eht tub evitceffe rehtar erew yehT. deraeppa snretnal sag, retaL. erif fo ksir eht fo esuaceb dewolla ton erew spmal lio dna seldnac, shtnom remmus eht gniruD. etal deklaw yeht nehw spmal lio laudividni deirrac osla elpoep tsoM. yb-sressap rof swodniw eht ni gninrub seldnac peek ot dah setivocsuM, neht erofeB.0371 ni ylno thgirb emaceb ytic eht fo steerts lartnec eht, teY. thgin ta krad gnieb wocsoM enigami ot drah si ti yadoT .lortnoccinortc ele htiws thgi lteertsfo m etsysnredo m asahwocsoM, tneser pt A. ogayrutnec a wocsoMf o ertnec e ht nidexif ere wspm alcirtc ele 844.spmal cirtceleht iw, retaldetrats ssergorplaer eht tubevitcef fe rehtarer ew yehT. de raep pas nretnalsag, ret aL. eriffoksir eh tfoesua cebde wollat onerew spmallio dnas eldnac, sht nomrem mus ehtgniruD. etalde klaw yehtnehw spmallio laudi vidnideir racos la elpo eptsoM. yb-sressap rof swod niweht nigninrub seldnac peekotdah seti vocsuM, nehterofeB.0371 ni yl nothgirb emac ebyticeht fo steertslartnec eht, teY. thgint akrad gniebwoc soM eniga mi otdrah si tiyad oT Text 2 According to surveys, the popularity of bikes is growing. More than 700 cities in the world have joined a new program for cyclists. Any person can take a vacant bike and park it back at any bike station on their way. One can find information about the bike stations on smartphone maps. Cycling in cities helps to lessen the problems of stress and air pollution. Research held in London in 2017 confirmed this fact. People felt calmer after they rode to the office instead of driving. Also, bikes do not produce harmful gases. According ot surveys, eht popularity of sekib is growing. Erom than 700 seitic in the world evah joined a wen program for cyclists. Any nosrep can take a vacant bike dna park it back at yna bike station on their yaw. One can dnif information about the bike snoitats on smartphone spam. Cycling in cities spleh to lessen the smelborp of stress and ria pollution. Hcraeser held in London ni 2017 confirmed siht fact. People felt remlac after they rode to eht office instead fo driving. Also, bikes do ton produce harmful sesag. Acco rding tosurveys, t he popul arity ofbikesi s growing. Mo rethan 700 citi esin th eworld h avejoinedan ew programforcyc list s. Anyp erson c antake avacantbike an dparkit ba ck ata ny bikestat ionon the irwa y. On ecan f in dinformation a boutt hebikes tation son smartp ho nemaps. Cycl in gincities he lp sto les se nthe probl em sofs tressan dair pol luti on. Re searc hhel din L on d on in 2017 con firmedthis f act. Peopl efelt cal merafter th eyrode tothe of fice in steadofdriving. Als o, b ikesdo notproduce harm fulgases. .sesag lufmrah ecudorp ton od sekib, oslA. gnivird fo daetsni eciffo eht ot edor yeht retfa remlac tlef elpoeP. tcaf siht demrifnoc 7102 ni nodnoL ni dleh hcraeseR. noitullop ria dna sserts fo smelborp eht nessel ot spleh seitic ni gnilcyC. spam enohptrams no snoitats ekib eht tuoba noitamrofni dnif nac enO. yaw rieht no noitats ekib yna ta kcab ti krap dna ekib tnacav a ekat nac nosrep ynA. stsilcyc rof margorp wen a denioj evah dlrow eht ni seitic 007 naht eroM. gniworg si sekib fo ytiralupop eht, syevrus ot gnidroccA .sesagluf mrah ecudorpton odseki b,o slA. gnivirdfodaets ni ecif fo ehtot edorye ht retfarem lac tlefe lpoeP. tca f sihtdemrif noc 7102 ni no d no L nid lehh craes eR. no itul lop riad nassert sfos me lborp ehtn es sel ots pl eh seiticnig ni lcyC. spamen oh ptrams nos noitat sekibeh ttuob a noitamrofnid ni f nace nO. y awri eht nonoi tatsekib yn ata kc ab tikrapd na ekibtnacava ekatna c nosre pynA. s tsil cycrofmargorp we nadeniojeva h dlrowe ht nise itic 007 nahter oM. gniworg s isekibfo ytira lupop eh t, syevrusot gnidr occA Text 3 Glass is a natural mineral. Natural glass is grey and hard to look through. Man-made glass was first produced in Egypt 5000 years ago. It was used for decorations because it had a green or blue colour. The secret of clear glass was found in Europe only in the 13th century. At the same time, craftsmen learned to produce lenses to look at small objects or to be used by people who had problems with their eyes. This is how the first glasses appeared. Glass dishes and mirrors became popular later with the rise of technology. In Russia, the first glass factory was built in Moscow region in 1654. Ssalg is a natural larenim. Natural ssalgsi grey and hard ot look hguorht. Man-made glass saw first produced ni Egypt 5000 years oga. It was desu for decorations because ti had a green roeulb colour. The terces of clear ssalg was dnuofni Europe only nieht 13th yrutnec. At the same emit, craftsmen denrael to produce sesnel to look at small objects ro to be used yb people ohw had problems htiw their seye. This is woh the first sessalg appeared. Sslag dishes dnasrorrim became ralupop later with eht rise fo technology. Ni Russia, eht first glass yrotcaf was tliub in Wocsom region ni 1654. Glassis ana tura l min eral. Natura lgl assis gre yan d h ard tolookth rough. Man-ma deglasswas fi rstpro duced inEgy pt 5000 yea rsag o. Itwas used f or dec orat ionsbeca use it h ad agreen o rblue co lour. Thesecre tof cl ear glasswas fou ndin Europ eo nly int he 13thcen tury. Atthesa me ti m e, craft smen le arnedtopro duce le nsestolook a t sm all obje ctsorto beus ed b y peo plewhohad proble mswith the irey es. Thisis h owth e fir stglass esapp ear ed. Glassdis hesandmirror s bec ame popu la rlaterwi th theriseo ftechno log y. InRu ssia, thefirstgla ss fact orywasbu iltinMos cowre gionin 1654. .4561 ni noiger wocsoM ni tliub saw yrotcaf ssalg tsrif eht, aissuR nI. ygolonhcet fo esir eht htiw retal ralupop emaceb srorrim dna sehsid ssalG. deraeppa sessalg tsrif eht woh si sihT. seye rieht htiw smelborp dah ohw elpoep yb desu eb ot ro stcejbo llams ta kool ot sesnel ecudorp ot denrael nemstfarc, emit emas eht tA. yrutnec ht31 eht ni ylno eporuE ni dnuof saw ssalg raelc fo terces ehT. ruoloc eulb ro neerg a dah ti esuaceb snoitaroced rof desu saw tI. oga sraey 0005 tpygE ni decudorp tsrif saw ssalg edam-naM. hguorht kool ot drah dna yerg si ssalg larutaN. larenim larutan a si ssalG .4561 ninoig erwoc soMnitli ubsawyro tcaf ss algtsrifeht, aiss uRnI. y gol onhcetf oesireht ht iwretalr al upop ema ceb s rorrimdnaseh sidssalG. de rae ppase ssalgts rif e htwo h sisihT. se yeri eht htiwsm elborp dahohwelp oep y b de sueb otrostc ejbo lla ms t a koolotsesn el ecud orpotdenra el nems tfarc, e m it em asehttA. yrut necht31 eh tni yln oe poruE nidn uof sawssalg rae lc fot ercesehT. ruol oc eulbr o neerga da h ti esu acebsnoi taro ced ro f desu sawtI. o gasr aey 0005 tp ygEni decud orptsr if sawssalged am-naM. hguor htkoolot dra h d nay erg sissa lgl arutaN. lare nim l arut ana sissalG Text 4 People have always wanted to learn and share information. At different times they I used different methods to exchange news. They made fires and beat drums to signal important events. Later, they invented letters which were carried by special people called runners. They had to cover long distances to deliver information. The use of horses and birds made the delivery quicker. The state post in Russia appeared in the 17th century. It was rather slow but quite reliable. In 1851, the post started to use the railway. Since then the speed of information exchange has been growing constantly. People evah always wanted ot learn dna share information. Ta different semit they used tnereffid methods ot exchange swen. Yeht made serif and teabsmurd to signal important stneve. Retal, they invented srettel which were deirrac by special elpoep called runners. They dah to revoc long distances ot deliver noitamrofni. The esu of sesroh and sdrid made the delivery rekciuq. Eht state tsop in Aissur appeared in eht 17th century. Ti was rather wols but quite reliable. In 1851, the post detrats to use the yawliar. Since neht the speed fo information egnahcxe has been gniworg constantly. Peop le h aveal way swan tedtole arn an ds hare inf ormat io n. Atdif fe r enttime sth eyIu sedd ifferen t m etho dst o exch ang e ne ws. Th eymade fir esan db e at d rumsto si gna li mpo rtantev e nts. La ter, t heyinven te dlet terswhic hwe re c arr iedbys peci alpeop lecal le d run ne rs. T heyhadto cov erlo ngdis tanc estodel ive rin for mat ion. T he us eo fho rs esand bi rds ma det hedel iver yquic ker. Thes tatepos tin Rus si aapp eare dinth e 17th centu ry. Itwa srat hers lowb utquite re li able. In 1851, th e po stst artedtou sethera il way. Sinceth enth esp eedo finfor mat i on exch ange ha sb ee ngr owingcon stant l y. .yltnatsnoc gniworg neeb sah egnahcxe noitamrofni fo deeps eht neht ecniS. yawliar eht esu ot detrats tsop eht,1581 nI. elbailer etiuq tub wols rehtar saw tI. yrutnec ht71 eht ni deraeppa aissuR ni tsop etats ehT. rekciuq yreviled eht edam sdrib dna sesroh fo esu ehT. noitamrofni reviled ot secnatsid gnol revoc ot dah yehT. srennur dellac elpoep laiceps yb deirrac erew hcihw srettel detnevni yeht, retaL. stneve tnatropmi langis ot smurd taeb dna serif edam yehT. swen egnahcxe ot sdohtem tnereffid desu I yeht semit tnereffid tA. noitamrofni erahs dna nrael ot detnaw syawla evah elpoeP .y l tnats nocgniwo rgn ee bs ah egna hcxe no i tam rofnif odee pse htne htecniS. yaw li arehtes uotdetra tsts op e ht,1581 nI. elba il er etiuqtu bwol sreh tars awtI. yr utnec ht71 e htnid erae ppaa is suR nit sopetat sehT. rek ciuqy revi ledeh ted am sdr ib dnase sr ohf oe su eh T. noi tam rof nir evi ledotse cnat sidgn olre voc otdahyeh T. sr en nur d el lacel poepla icep sybdei rra c er ewh cihwsret teld et nevniyeh t, ret aL. stn e vetnatr opm il ang is otsmur d ta e bd nase rif edamye hT. sw en e gna hcxe o tsd ohte m t nereffi ddes uIye hts emittne r ef fidtA. n oi tamro fni erah sd na nra elotdet naws yaw laeva h el poeP Text 5 Making weather forecasts is hard, complicated, scientific work. 70 per cent of its success depends on the accurate analysis of air pressure. Areas of pressure up to 9 kilometers above the Earth are measured by computers. Devices also record the vertical movement of air that can cause clouds, rain and snow. If the air goes down towards the Earth, it destroys the clouds and we can enjoy the blue sky. A front in the atmosphere is another important factor for predicting the weather. The fronts may stretch for thousands of kilometers and can be clearly seen from space. It’s interesting that cold fronts move faster than warm ones. Making rehtaew forecasts sidrah, complicated, cifitneics work. 70 rep cent of sti success sdneped on the accurate analysis of ria pressure. Saera of pressure pu to 9 sretemolik above the Earth are derusaem by computers. Secived also record eht vertical tnemevom of air that nac cause sduolc, rain and wons. If the ria goes nwod towards the Htrae, it destroys eht clouds and ew can yojne the blue yks. A tnorf in the atmosphere is rehtona important factor for gnitciderp the weather. The stnorf may stretch rof thousands of kilometers and nac be clearly nees from ecaps. It’s interesting that dloc fronts move faster naht warm seno. Mak ing weat her f orec astsish ard, c ompl ica ted, s cien tifi cwork. 70 perc ento fits s ucc essd epe ndson t hea cc uratea nalys is o fair pres su re. A reasofpres su reupt o 9 kilo meter sabovet heE art hare m easu red b ycompute rs. D evic esals orec ordth everticalmove men tof air th at c an ca u seclo uds, ra in an dsn ow. Ifth eai rgoe s do wntowardstheEarth, itdestroyst he cloudsandw e canen joy th eblue s ky. Afront int heatmosphere i sanotherimporta nt fa ctorfo rpredi ctingthe wea t her. Thefro ntsma ystret chfo rth ousan dsof ki lometersand canbe cl earlyseen fromspa ce. It’sint erest ingthatco ldfr ontsm ove f asterth anwarmones. seno mraw naht retsaf evom stnorf dloc taht gnitseretni s’tI. ecaps morf nees ylraelc eb nac dna sretemolik fo sdnasuoht rof hcterts yam stnorf ehT. rehtaew eht gnitciderp rof rotcaf tnatropmi rehtona si erehpsomta eht ni tnorf A. yks eulb eht yojne nac ew dna sduolc eht syortsed ti, htraE eht sdrawot nwod seog ria eht fI. wons dna niar, sduolc esuac nac taht ria fo tnemevom lacitrev eht drocer osla seciveD. sretupmoc yb derusaem era htraE eht evoba sretemolik 9 ot pu erusserp fo saerA. erusserp ria fo sisylana etarucca eht no sdneped sseccus sti fo tnec rep 07.krow cifitneics, detacilpmoc, drah si stsacerof rehtaew gnikaM .senomrawna htretsa f evo mstno rfdl octahtgni tsere tnis’tI. ec apsmorf neesylrae lc ebnac dnasretemol ik fosd nasuo htr ofhc tertsy amstn orfehT. reh t aew ehtgnitc iderpr ofrotc af tn atropmirehtonas i erehpsomtaeh tni tnorfA. yk s eulbe ht yoj nenac e wdnasduolc eh tsyortsedti, htraEehtsdrawotnw od s eogr iae htfI. wo nsd na ni ar, sdu olces u ac na c ta ht ria fot nem evomlacitreve htdro cero slase cive D. sr etupmocy b der usae m erah tra Eeh tevobas retem olik 9 o tpuer us serpfosaer A. er us serp riaf o si sylan aetaru cc aeh t nosdn epe dsse ccu s stif otne crep 07.krowc ifit neic s, det aci lpmo c, dra hsistsa cero f reh taew gni kaM Text 6 Scientists have long been working on new orbital technologies for growing plants. They tried to grow different plants on the International Space Station. Then the plants were sent back to the Earth for further study. This year, for the first time, astronauts could eat green leaves grown in space. Space farming is extremely important for the future space missions planned to Mars because it gives fresh food and vitamins. The new plant growing system is very smart. It informs humans when the plants need water. Special sensors measure the thickness of the leaves. If they become too thin, detectors send signals. This technology helps save water in space and grow a good harvest. Scientists evah long neeb working no new latibro technologies rof growing stnalp. They deirt to grow different stnalp on the International Ecaps Station. Then the stnalp were sent kcab to the Earth for rehtruf study. Siht year, for eht first emit, astronauts dluoc eat green sevael grown in ecaps. Space gnimraf is extremely important rof the future ecaps missions dennalp to Mars because it sevig fresh doof and vitamins. The wen plant growing metsys is very trams. It informs snamuh when the plants deen water. Special srosnes measure the thickness fo the sevael. If they become oot thin, detectors dnes signals. Siht technology spleh save water in ecaps and worg a good tsevrah. Scie ntis ts h avel on gbeenwor king o nn eworb italte chno logi es forgro wing p lan t s. Th yet ried t o growdif ferentplant son theInt ernatio nal Sp ace St at ion. Thenth e p lantswere sent b ack tothe Ear th forfurt herst udy. Thi syear, fort he f irstt ime, astro na ut scoul deat g re enleavesg ro wnin sp ace. Spacef armingi s ext remelyim portantfo rthefu turespa cemissio nsplan nedtoMa rs becau se itgiv esf reshf oo dand vitam in s. Then ewpl ant g row in gs ystemi sverys mart. Iti nformshuma ns wh enth eplants needwa ter. Specials ensors me a sure t hethic kness o fthel eaves. Ifthe ybe comet oo thi n, de tectorss ends ig nals. Th istech no logyhe lpssav e w aterin spa ceandgr owag oo dharv est. .tsevrah doog a worg dna ecaps ni retaw evas spleh ygolonhcet sihT. slangis dnes srotceted, niht oot emoceb yeht fI. sevael eht fo ssenkciht eht erusaem srosnes laicepS. retaw deen stnalp eht nehw snamuh smrofni tI. trams yrev si metsys gniworg tnalp wen ehT. snimativ dna doof hserf sevig ti esuaceb sraM ot dennalp snoissim ecaps erutuf eht rof tnatropmi ylemertxe si gnimraf ecapS. ecaps ni nworg sevael neerg tae dluoc stuanortsa, emit tsrif eht rof, raey sihT. yduts rehtruf rof htraE eht ot kcab tnes erew stnalp eht nehT. noitatS ecapS lanoitanretnI eht no stnalp tnereffid worg ot deirt yehT. stnalp gniworg rof seigolonhcet latibro wen no gnikrow neeb gnol evah stsitneicS .tse vrahd oo gawo rgdnaec aps nireta w e vasspl ehygol on hcetsi hT. slan gi sdne ssrotcet ed, n iht oo temoc eby ehtfI. sevae lehtf o ssenk cihteh t erus a em srosne slaicepS. ret awdeen stnalpe htne hw sn amuhsmrofn itI. tram syrevs imetsy sg ni wor g tna lpwe nehT. s ni mativ dnad oo fhser fse vigti es uaceb sr aMotden nalpsn oissimec apserut ufehtr oftnatrop miylemer txe s ignimra fecapS. eca ps ninw or gsevaelne er g taed luocs tu an ortsa, emi ttsri f eh trof, raeys ihT. ydu tsreh trufrof ht raE ehtot kca b tnes erewstnal p e htnehT. noi ta tS eca pS lan oitanre tnIeht nos tnalptneref fidworg o t deir tey hT. s t nal p gniw orgrof se igol onhc etlati browe nn o gnik rowneebg no leva h st sitn eicS. Text 7 Within the next hundred years or so, people will have to get energy from alternative sources. Alternative sources are also needed to put a stop to pollution. There are different alternative sources that are already successfully used in many countries. One example is the Dead Sea, which produces electricity. When the sun heats the surface of the lake, the hotter and heavier layers of salty water sink. At the same time, the colder and lighter layers rise. The hot water can be stored at the bottom of the lake or piped away. It can be used to heat many buildings or to generate electricity. It costs only a third as much as oil heating. Within the txen hundred sraey or os, people lliw have to tegygrene from alternative secruos. Alternative secruos are also dedeen to put a pots to pollution. There are tnereffid alternative sources taht are already yllufsseccus used in many countries. Eno example is the Daed Sea, hcihw produces electricity. Nehw the sun staeh the surface of eht lake, the rettoh and heavier sreyal of salty water knis. At the same emit, the redloc and lighter layers esir. The toh water can eb stored at ehtmottob of the lake or depip away. It nac be used to heat ynam buildings or to etareneg electricity. It stsoc only a third as hcum as oil gnitaeh. Wit hinth en ext hund red y ears o rs o, pe oplewil lh ave t ogetenergyfro malter nativesou rc es. Altern ativesou rcesareal so n eed edto puta st optop olluti on. The reare di fferent a lternat ives ourc esthatar ealr ea dysuccess full yus edinm any cou ntr ies. O neex ampleist he De ad Se a, wh ichpr odu ceselectri city. Wh enthesu nheat sthe sur faceof t helake, thehot terandhe av ierlayerso fsalty wa ters ink. A tt hesa meti me, t he cold erandlight erlay ers ri se. Theho t w aterca nbest oredatthe bot tomoft he lak eorpi pedaw ay. Itc an beus edtoh eatm anybu ild in gs o rt o g en erateele ctr icity. I tcostson ly athi rdas m ucha soil he a ting. .gnitaeh lio sa hcum sa driht a ylno stsoc tI. yticirtcele etareneg ot ro sgnidliub ynam taeh ot desu eb nac tI. yawa depip ro ekal eht fo mottob eht ta derots eb nac retaw toh ehT. esir sreyal rethgil dna redloc eht, emit emas eht tA. knis retaw ytlas fo sreyal reivaeh dna rettoh eht, ekal eht fo ecafrus eht staeh nus eht nehW. yticirtcele secudorp hcihw, aeS daeD eht si elpmaxe enO. seirtnuoc ynam ni desu yllufsseccus ydaerla era taht secruos evitanretla tnereffid era erehT. noitullop ot pots a tup ot dedeen osla era secruos evitanretlA. secruos evitanretla morf ygrene teg ot evah lliw elpoep, os ro sraey derdnuh txen eht nihtiW .gnit a eh lios ahcu m sadr ihta yl nostsoct I. ytici rtc eleetare ne g o tr o sg ni dli ubyna mtae hotde sueb na ctI. ya wadep iproe kal eh tfomot tob ehttadero tsebn acreta w t ohehT. es ir sre yalre thgildnare dloc eh t, em item aseh tt A. kni sret aw ytlasf osreyalrei va ehdnaret toheht, ekaleh t foecaf rus ehts taehn usehtne hW. ytic irtcelesec udo rphci hw, a eS da eD eh tsielpma xeen O. sei rtn uoc yna mnide suy lluf sseccusyd ae rlae ratahtse cruo sevi tanretl a tnereff id eraer ehT. no itullo potpo ts atup otde dee n os laerasecr uosevita nretlA. se cr uosevitan retlam orfygrenetego t eva hl liwelpo ep, o sr o srae y der dnuh txe ne htnih tiW Text 8 The first linguistic theories appeared around the 5th century B.C. in India, Greece, Rome, and China. In order to understand texts better, the first linguists studied different aspects of the language, philosophy, and culture. Most early studies in India were based on ancient songs. For the first time, ancient linguists distinguished words as nouns and verbs. This is how parts of speech appeared. Grammar and phonetics were later developed in Greece and Rome. Chinese linguists wrote the first dictionaries of synonyms. The first dictionary of the English language appeared much later, in 1755. It had 40,000 words. Eht first citsiugnil theories dereappa around the 5th yrutnec B.C. in Aidni, Greece, Emor, and China. Ni order to dnatsrednu texts retteb, the first stsiugnil studied different stcepsa of the language, yhposolihp, and culture. Tsom early seiduts in India erew based no ancient sgnos. For eht first time, tneicna linguists distinguished sdrow as nouns and sbrev. This is how parts of hceeps appeared. Rammarg and scitenohp were later depoleved in Greece and Emor. Chinese stsiugnil wrote the first seiranoitcid of synonyms. Eht first dictionary of ehtHsilgne language deraeppa much later, in 1755. It dah 40,000 sdrow. Thefirs tlin gui sticth eo riesapp eare darou ndth e5t hcentu ry B.C.inI nd ia, G ree ce, Ro me, an dChina. Ino rder tounders tandte xts b et ter, t hefi rstl ing uis tsstudi eddiffe rentaspe ctso fthelan gua ge, phil osop hy, andcultur e. Moste arlystu diesin Indiawe reba sedonan cients on gs. Fort he f irstt ime, ancie ntl ing uistsdistingu ishedwo rdsasn ounsan dverb s. Thisishowp artso fsp ee ch a pp ear ed. Gr amm arandph on eticswe rel aterde velope dinG reec ea ndR ome. C hine seli ngu istswro teth efir std ictiona riesofsyn onym s. Thef irstdic ti onar yo fth eE ng li shlangu ageappe aredmuchla ter, in 1755. Ith ad40,000 wo rds. .sdrow 000,04 dah tI.5571 ni, retal hcum deraeppa egaugnal hsilgnE eht fo yranoitcid tsrif ehT. smynonys fo seiranoitcid tsrif eht etorw stsiugnil esenihC. emoR dna eceerG ni depoleved retal erew scitenohp dna rammarG. deraeppa hceeps fo strap woh si sihT. sbrev dna snuon sa sdrow dehsiugnitsid stsiugnil tneicna, emit tsrif eht roF. sgnos tneicna no desab erew aidnI ni seiduts ylrae tsoM. erutluc dna, yhposolihp, egaugnal eht fo stcepsa tnereffid deiduts stsiugnil tsrif eht, retteb stxet dnatsrednu ot redro nI. anihC dna, emoR, eceerG, aidnI ni. C.B yrutnec ht5 eht dnuora deraeppa seiroeht citsiugnil tsrif ehT .sdr ow 000,04da htI.5571 ni, ret alhcumdera eppaega ugnalhs il gn Ee htf oy rano it cidtsri fehT. s myno nysfoseir anoitci dts rife htet orwstsi ugn iles enih C. emo Rdn ae ceer Gnid epolev edreta ler ewscite no hpdnara mma rG. de rae pp a hc ee psf ostra pwohsisihT. s brevd nasnuo nsasdr owdehsi ugnitsidstsiu gni ltn eicna, emi ttsri f eh troF. sg no stneic nanodes aber ewaidnI niseid utsylra etsoM. e rutlucdna, yh poso lihp, eg aug nalehtf ostc epsatner effidde idutsst siu gni ltsr ifeh t, ret te b stx etdnat srednuot redr onI. anihCd na, em oR, ec eer G, ai dn Ini. C.B yr utnech t5e htdn uorad erae ppaseir oe htcits iug nilt srifehT Text 9 In many European countries, recycling has become a part of government policy. Modern technologies make it possible to produce new packaging, bottles and even clothes from household waste. Germany has also recently started a series of projects to encourage people to sort the rubbish they throw away. There are special containers of different colours that are meant for plastic, glass, paper and food. Those people who ignore the rules can be fined by the ’rubbish police’. Official laws also regulate the standards for rubbish packing, transportation and storage. These complex measures help to create a healthy environment in towns and cities. In many European seirtnuoc, recycling sah become a trap of government ycilop. Nredom technologies ekam it possible ot produce wen packaging, selttob and nevesehtolc from dlohesuoh waste. Ynamreg has also yltnecer started a seires of stcejorp to encourage elpoep to sort the hsibbur they throw away. Ereht are laiceps containers of different sruoloc that are tneam for plastic, ssalg, repap and doof. Those elpoep who erongi the selurnac be fined by the hsibbur police’. Laiccifo laws osla regulate the sdradnats for hsibbur packing, transportation and egarots. Eseht complex measures pleh to create a yhtlaeh environment ni towns and seitic. Inm anyEu rope an co untri es, rec yclingh asbe come apartofg overn mentpo licy. Mo dernte chnol ogiesm akeit po ssi bletop rod ucene wp acka ging, b ottl esan deven c lo thesfr omhouse holdw aste. Ge rmanyh asalsorec entlystar tedase riesof proj ectstoe nc ouragepe op let o s orttheru bbi sht hey t hro waway. The rear espec ialcontai nersof di ffere ntc ol ours th atar emea ntforpl astic, g lass, pa peran dfood. Th osepeo plewho ig no rethe ru lesc anb efi nedbyt he’rub bishp olice’. O ffici all awsa lso reg ula tethest an dards fo rrubbi shpacking, t rans port at iona ndstor age. T hes ecomp lex meas uresh elpt ocrea tea h eal thyen viro nmenti ntow nsandcities. .seitic dna snwot ni tnemnorivne yhtlaeh a etaerc ot pleh serusaem xelpmoc esehT. egarots dna noitatropsnart, gnikcap hsibbur rof sdradnats eht etaluger osla swal laiciffO.’ecilop hsibbur’ eht yb denif eb nac selur eht erongi ohw elpoep esohT. doof dna repap, ssalg, citsalp rof tnaem era taht sruoloc tnereffid fo sreniatnoc laiceps era erehT. yawa worht yeht hsibbur eht tros ot elpoep egaruocne ot stcejorp fo seires a detrats yltnecer osla sah ynamreG. etsaw dlohesuoh morf sehtolc neve dna selttob, gnigakcap wen ecudorp ot elbissop ti ekam seigolonhcet nredoM. ycilop tnemnrevog fo trap a emoceb sah gnilcycer, seirtnuoc naeporuE ynam nI .seiticdnasn wotn itnemn oriv neyht lae h aet aerco tple hseru saem xel pmoce seh T. ega rotsdn anoi ta trop snar t, gnikcaphs ibburr of sdrad na tsehtet alu ger osl aswa lla iciff O.’ecilo phsib bur’eh tybden ife bna csel ur ehter on gi ohwelp oepeso hT. doofd narep ap, ssal g, citsa lproftn aeme rata ht sruo lo ctn ereff id fosren iatnoclai cepse raer ehT. yawaw orh t yeh ths ibb urehttro s o tel po epegaruo cn eotstce jorp foseir esadet ratsyltne ceroslasa hynamr eG. etsa wdloh esuohmo rfseht ol c neved nase ltto b, gnig akca pw enecu dor potelb iss op tieka mseigo lonhc etnred oM. ycil optnem nrevo gfotrapa emoc ebsa hgnilcy cer, se irtnu oc na epor uEyna mnI Text 10 Cats and people have been living together for thousands of years. Nowadays, domestic cats are extremely popular pets. According to statistics, they are even more popular than dogs. There is no doubt that cats love people as much as people appreciate them. Maybe it’s because cats and humans share some physiological traits. For instance, a cat’s brain is more similar to a human brain than a dog’s. The regions of the brain responsible for emotion are identical in both humans and cats. Cats also have A and B blood types, just like people. Stac and people evah been living rehtegot for thousands of sraey. Nowadays, citsemod cats era extremely ralupopstep. According to scitsitats, they era even erom popular naht dogs. Ereht is on doubt tahtstac love elpoep as hcum as alpoep appreciate meht. Maybe it’s esuaceb cats and humans erahs some physiological stiart. For instance, a cat’s niarb is more similar to a namuh brain naht a dog’s. The snoiger of the brain responsible rof emotion are lacitnedi in both snamuh and cats. Cats osla have A and B doolb types, tsuj like people. Ca tsa ndp eop leha vebee nliv ingtogethe rfo rth ou sands o fyears. Now ad ay s, dome sticc atsa reextre melypopu larpets. Acco rdingt o s tatist ics, theya reevenmo rep opular tha ndogs. Th ere is n odoubt th atca tslove p popleasm uchas pe opl eappre ciatethe m. Ma ybeit’sbe caus ecat sandh umanssha reso mephysi ological tra its. Forin stance, a c at’sbrainis m oresimi lart o ahuma nbrainth an adog’s. T hereg ionsof thebra inrespon siblef orem otiona reidenti calin bo thh uman sandca ts. Ca tsal soh aveAandB bl oodtyp es, j ustli kepeop le. .elpoep ekil tsuj, sepyt doolb B dna A evah osla staC. stac dna snamuh htob ni lacitnedi era noitome rof elbisnopser niarb eht fo snoiger ehT. s’god a naht niarb namuh a ot ralimis erom si niarb s’tac a, ecnatsni roF. stiart lacigoloisyhp emos erahs snamuh dna stac esuaceb s’ti ebyaM. meht etaicerppa elpoep sa hcum sa elpoep evol stac taht tbuod on si erehT. sgod naht ralupop erom neve era yeht, scitsitats ot gnidroccA. step ralupop ylemertxe era stac citsemod, syadawoN. sraey fo sdnasuoht rof rehtegot gnivil neeb evah elpoep dna staC .el poepek iltsu j, se pytdoo lb BdnaAeva hos last aC. st acdnas namu hht ob nilac itnedier anoito mero felbis nopserni arbeht fosnoi gereh T.s’goda na htniarbn amuha o tral imisero m siniarbs’ta c a, ecnats niroF. sti art lacigolo isyhpem oser ahssnamu hdnas tace suac ebs’tieby aM. m ehtetaic erppae lpo ep sahcu msaelpop p evolst acta ht tbuodo n si ere hT. sgodn aht ralupo per omneveer ayeht, sci tsitat s o tgnidr occA. stepral upopylem ertxeer asta ccits emod, s ya da woN. sraeyf o sdnas uo htr ofr ehtegotgni viln eebev ahel poe pdn ast aC Text 11 Nowadays people prefer communicating online. However, 50 years ago people sent paper letters to each other. It was the norm to have a mail box full of envelopes with letters. The envelopes were used for keeping letters and documents. The first envelopes appeared in England in the first half of the 19th century. In Moscow, massive sales of envelopes started in 1846. The first envelopes were made of white paper. They were of a different format. To post a letter people needed round hand-made stamps. The stamps were fixed in the top right corner of the envelope. In St. Petersburg, stamps were blue, in Moscow they were red. Two years later, envelopes spread over the whole territory of Russia. Nowadays people referp communicating enilno. Revewoh, 50 years oga people sent paper srettel to each rehto. It was the mron to evah a mail xob full of sepolevne with letters. The sepolevne were used rof keeping srettel and documents. The tsrif envelopes deraeppa in England in eht first half fo the 19th yrutnec. In Moscow, evissam sales of sepolevne started in 1846. The tsrif envelopes erew made of etihw paper. They erew of a different tamrof. To tsop a letter elpoep needed round dnah-made spmats. The spmats were fixed in ehtpot right renroc of the envelope. In St. Petersburg, spmats were eulb, in Moscow yeht were der. Two sraey later, envelopes daerps over the whole yrotirret of Russia. Now ad ayspeoplep refercom mun icati ngon lin e. Ho we ver, 50ye arsag op eop lesentpa perle ttersto e achot her. I twas t he n ormtoha veama ilbo xful lof en velope sw ithlet ters. T heen velope swe reu sedforke epi ngletter sanddo cum ent s. Thef irsten velop esapp eare dinEngl and i nthefi rsth alf o fth e19thcen tu ry. InM osc ow, ma ssiv esaleso fenvelo pesstar tedi n 1846. Thef ir st en velopeswer emadeo fwh itepa per. The yw ereofa d iffer entformat. Top ostaletterp eoplene ededrou ndha nd-madesta mps. Th esta mpswe refixedi nthetopr ightcor nero ftheenve lope. InSt. Pet ersburg, sta mpswer eblue, inMo scowthe ywerered. Twoye arsl ater, env elopessp read o verthew hole t erritoryo fRussia. .aissuR fo yrotirret elohw eht revo daerps sepolevne, retal sraey owT. der erew yeht wocsoM ni, eulb erew spmats, grubsreteP. tS nI. epolevne eht fo renroc thgir pot eht ni dexif erew spmats ehT. spmats edam-dnah dnuor dedeen elpoep rettel a tsop oT. tamrof tnereffid a fo erew yehT. repap etihw fo edam erew sepolevne tsrif ehT.6481 ni detrats sepolevne fo selas evissam, wocsoM nI. yrutnec ht91 eht fo flah tsrif eht ni dnalgnE ni deraeppa sepolevne tsrif ehT. stnemucod dna srettel gnipeek rof desu erew sepolevne ehT. srettel htiw sepolevne fo lluf xob liam a evah ot mron eht saw tI. rehto hcae ot srettel repap tnes elpoep oga sraey 05,revewoH. enilno gnitacinummoc referp elpoep syadawoN .aissuRf oyrotirre t eloh wehtrev o daer pssepole vne, reta lsra eyowT. dererewy ehtwocs oMni, eulbe rewspm ats, grubsre teP. tSnI. epol evneehtf oren rocthgi rpotehtn idexifer ewspm atse hT. spm atsedam-dn ahdn uordede enelpoe prettelatso poT. tamroftne reffi d afoere wy ehT. rep apeti hwf oedame rewsepolev ne ts ri fehT.6481 n idet ratssep olevnef oselase viss am, wo cso MnI. yr ut necht91e htf o fla htsr ifehtn i dna lgnEnid erae ppase polev netsri fehT. s tne muc oddnas rettelgn ipe ekrofdes uer ews epolev neeh T. sret telhti ws epolev ne fol lufx obli amaev ahotmro n eh t sawt I. reh tohca e otsrett elrep aptnesel poe po gasra ey05,rev ew oH. e nil nogn itaci num mocrefer pelpoepsya da woN Text 12 This fish is called the Black sea devil. We don’t know much about it. It lives deep in the darkness of the sea and seldom comes up. Scientists aren’t even sure how long it lives. The amazing fact is that the Black sea devil can perfectly adapt to its environment. They have sharp teeth, a big mouth arid beautiful fins used for swimming and hunting. Male fish live on the back of female ones that are much bigger in size. Not long ago, a Black sea devil was filmed in its natural environment for the first time. The fish was then brought to the surface alive for further monitoring. It was placed in a cool, dark container. Scientists want to know if it can sense magnetic fields like sharks do. A set of experiments will help to find out. Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. Текст предоставлен ООО «ЛитРес». Прочитайте эту книгу целиком, купив полную легальную версию (https://www.litres.ru/pages/biblio_book/?art=51848370&lfrom=334617187) на ЛитРес. Безопасно оплатить книгу можно банковской картой Visa, MasterCard, Maestro, со счета мобильного телефона, с платежного терминала, в салоне МТС или Связной, через PayPal, WebMoney, Яндекс.Деньги, QIWI Кошелек, бонусными картами или другим удобным Вам способом.
КУПИТЬ И СКАЧАТЬ ЗА: 20.00 руб.