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Unlocking Spanish with Paul Noble: Your key to language success with the bestselling language coach Paul Noble Ever tried to learn Spanish and found it too hard? Bestselling language coach Paul Noble has a quick and easy way to get you back on track with his unique tried-and-tested method.• Keeps things simple with three basic rules; don’t skip anything, don’t try to memorise anything and cover up to test yourself.• A fun, jargon-free way to learn• Easy-to-understand Spanish pronunciation• PROVEN to work; Paul can teach anyone a language, even people who think they’re incapablePaul’s course teaches you how to speak Spanish more effectively, giving you the building blocks to form a huge range of conversations. This is a practical way to learn the aspects of language that you’ll actually need and use; from booking a hotel room to navigating a menu, Paul will effortlessly build your confidence and give you the tools to handle any holiday situation. His ‘word robbery’ will also help unlock the range of vocabulary you already know.Ideal for first-time learners or people who struggled in school, this book will help you absorb information quickly and efficiently, just like you did learning English as a child. Forget the way you used to be taught; this course guarantees you minimum effort and maximum success without the need for complex grammar rules or jargon.“There is nothing so complicated in foreign languages that it cannot be made simple.” Paul NobleA quick, easy and fun way to unlock your basic language skills. Perfect for beginners, this book will give you all the information you need to build basic conversations and get by on your travels.Which Paul Noble product is right for me?I need a basic audio course for use on holiday or a business trip – choose The Essential Paul Noble Course.I am a beginner or near-beginner and need an in-depth audio course – choose The Paul Noble Complete Course.I have listened to a Complete Course and I would like to take my learning to the next level – choose The Paul Noble Next Steps Course.I have some understanding and have previously studied the language, I need a book to consolidate what I know and increase my conversational ability – choose The Paul Noble Unlocking Series. Copyright (#ulink_d4ccaba3-c731-5058-abea-9ed24798db8f) Published by Collins An imprint of HarperCollins Publishers Westerhill Road Bishopbriggs Glasgow G64 2QT First edition 2017 © Paul Noble 2017 Collins® is a registered trademark of HarperCollins Publishers Limited All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. By payment of the required fees, you have been granted the non-exclusive, non-transferable right to access and read the text of this e-book on screen. No part of this text may be reproduced, transmitted, downloaded, decompiled, reverse engineered, or stored in or introduced into any information storage and retrieval system, in any form or by any means, whether electronic or mechanical, now known or hereafter invented, without the express written permission of HarperCollins. Entered words that we have reason to believe constitute trademarks have been designated as such. However, neither the presence nor absence of such designation should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademark. HarperCollins does not warrant that any website mentioned in this title will be provided uninterrupted, than any website will be error free, that defects will be corrected, or that the website or the server that makes it available are free of viruses or bugs. For full terms and conditions please refer to the site terms provided on the website. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Source ISBN: 9780008135836 eBook Edition © January 2017 ISBN 9780008209520 Version: 2018-01-29 If you would like to comment on any aspect of this book, please contact us at the given address or online. E-mail dictionaries@harpercollins.co.uk (mailto:dictionaries@harpercollins.co.uk) www.facebook.com/collinsdictionary (http://www.facebook.com/collinsdictionary) @collinsdict (http://twitter.com/collinsdict) Acknowledgements Images from Shutterstock. MANAGING EDITOR Maree Airlie CONTRIBUTORS Alice Grandison Maggie Seaton Tony Galvez FOR THE PUBLISHER Gerry Breslin Holly Tarbet Kevin Robbins Vaila Donnachie Find out more about HarperCollins and the environment at www.harpercollins.co.uk/green HarperCollinsPublishers has made every reasonable effort to ensure that any picture content and written content in this ebook has been included or removed in accordance with the contractual and technological constraints in operation at the time of publication. People who feel confused by the way languages are normally taught. People who are amazed by just how closely grammar books resemble furniture assembly instructions People who studied Spanish at school People coming back to the language after a break People who’ve listened to one of Paul Noble’s audio courses People who haven’t listened to one of Paul Noble’s audio courses Who is this book for? People curious about whether they can learn a language People who didn’t study Spanish at school People who didn’t like how languages were taught at school People learning Spanish for the first time People who think they can’t learn a foreign language People who know no Spanish at all People who know some Spanish already Contents Cover (#u4e839c3c-ab92-5e5d-be1f-3a3c3b874b53) Title Page (#uec589340-82c8-5381-8141-67e0080535dd) Copyright (#ulink_8fd80c70-633c-5e4e-ac19-b27fb604748b) Footnotes (#litres_trial_promo) About the Publisher (#litres_trial_promo) Did you know you already speak Spanish? Did you know you already speak Spanish? Did you know you already speak Spanish? That you speak it every day? That you read and write it every day? That you use it with your friends, with your family, at work, down the post office – even in the shower when you read the label on the shampoo bottle? Were you aware of that fact? Well, even if you weren’t, it’s nevertheless true. Of course, you might not have realised at the time that what you were reading / saying / writing was actually Spanish but I can prove to you that it was. Just take a look at these Spanish words below but, as you do so, use your thumb to cover the letter at the end of each word: As your thumb has hopefully helped you to realise, these are words that exist not only in Spanish but also in English. And, in fact, these are by no means isolated examples of words that exist in both Spanish and English but rather they are merely the tip of a truly enormous iceberg. In fact, around half of all English words have close equivalents in Spanish.Yes, that’s right, half! If we begin using these words, together with an extremely subtle method that shows you how to put them into sentences in a way that’s almost effortless, then becoming a competent Spanish speaker becomes really quite easy. The only thing that you will need to do to make this happen is to follow the three simple rules printed on the following pages. These rules will explain to you how to use this book so that you can begin unlocking the Spanish language for yourself in a matter of hours. Well, what are you waiting for?Turn the page! Rule Number 1: Don’t skip anything! Using this book is extremely simple – and highly effective – if you follow its three simple rules. If you don’t want to follow them, then I recommend that, instead of reading the book, you use it to prop up a wobbly coffee table, as it won’t work if you don’t follow the rules. Now get ready – because here’s the first one! Each and every little thing in this book has been put where it is, in a very particular order, for a very particular reason. So, if the book asks you to read or do something, then do it! Who’s the teacher after all, you or me, eh? Also, each part of the book builds on and reinforces what came before it. If you start skipping sections, you will end up confused and lost. Instead, you should just take your time and gently work your way through the book at your own pace – but without skipping anything! Step by Step Rule Number 2: Don’t try to memorise anything! Trying to jam things into your head is boring and it doesn’t work. People often cram for tests and then forget everything the moment they walk out of the exam. Clearly, we don’t want that happening here. Instead, I have designed this book so that any word or idea taught in it will come up multiple times. You don’t need to worry about trying to remember or memorise anything because the necessary repetition is actually already built in. In fact, trying to memorise what you’re learning is likely to hinder rather than help your progress. So, just work your way through the book in a relaxed way and, if you happen to forget something, don’t worry because, as I say, you will be reminded of it again, multiple times, later on. Rule Number 3: Cover up! No, I’m not being a puritan grandmother and telling you to put on a long-sleeved cardigan. Instead, I’m asking you to take a bookmark or piece of paper and use it to cover up any orange text that you come across as you work your way through the book. These orange bits are the answers to the various riddles, challenges and questions that I will pose as I lead you into the Spanish language. If you read these answers without at least trying to work out the solutions first, then the book simply won’t work for you. So, make sure to use something to cover up the bits of orange text in the book while you have a go at trying to work out the answers. It doesn’t matter if you sometimes get them wrong because it is by trying to think out the answers that you will learn how to use the language. Trust me on this, you will see that it works from the very next page of this book. Take a look at the page on the right to see how to use your bookmark or piece of paper to cover up correctly. CHAPTER 1 I spent the weekend in Barcelona … and it was lovely. “I spent the weekend in Barcelona… and it was lovely.” Not such a complicated sentence in English, is it? Or is it…? I have taught many people over the years, ranging from those who know no Spanish at all through to those who may have studied Spanish for several years at school, and yet whether they have studied the language before or not, almost none of them tend to be able to construct a basic sentence like this when I first meet them. Admittedly, they might know how to say other far less useful things, like “I’m 37 years old and have two sisters and a goldfish” – an unusual conversation opener from my perspective – but they nevertheless can’t say what they did at the weekend. Well, in just a few minutes’ time, you will be able to do this – even if you’ve never learnt any Spanish before. Just remember though: don’t skip anything, don’t waste your time trying to memorise anything but do use your bookmark to cover up anything orange you find on each page. Okay now, let’s begin! To say “I visited” in Spanish, you simply take the English word “visit” and add “é” (pronounced “ay”) onto the end of it. So, do this now, take “visit” and add “é” (pronounced “ay”) onto the end of it. What does that give you? And this simply means “I visited”. “Madrid” in Spanish is, of course: Madrid (pronounced “ma-drid”) So, given what you have been taught so far, how do you think you would say “I visited Madrid”? Visité Madrid. (visit-ay ma-drid) And how do you think you would say “I visited Barcelona”? Visité Barcelona. (visit-ay bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er ) So far you have created the word for “I visited” in Spanish simply by taking the English word “visit” and adding “é” (pronounced “ay”) onto the end of it. You can now do something similar with the English word “pass”. Just as before, what I want you to do is to take the English word “pass” and simply add “é” (pronounced “ay”) onto the end of it. Do that now – what do you get? Pasé (pass-ay) This means “I passed” (and also “I spent” (time)). And oh yes, oops, you’ll have noticed that we lost an “s” in the process of doing this – oh well, never mind, what’s a letter between friends, eh?! So again, tell me, what is “I passed” (and also “I spent”) in Spanish? Pasé (pass-ay) “August” in Spanish is: agosto (a-gost-oh) So how would you say “I spent August” (literally “I passed August”)? Pasé agosto (pass-ay a-gost-oh) “In Barcelona” in Spanish is: en Barcelona (en bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er) So how would you say “I spent August in Barcelona”? Pasé agosto en Barcelona. (pass-ay a-gost-oh en bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er) How about “I spent August in Madrid”? Pasé agosto en Madrid. (pass-ay a-gost-oh en ma-drid) “The weekend” in Spanish is literally “the end of week”, which is: el fin de semana (el fin dey sem-arn-er) So how would you say “I spent the weekend in Madrid” (literally “I passed the end of week in Madrid”)? Pasé el fin de semana en Madrid. (pass-ay el fin dey sem-arn-er en ma-drid) How about “I spent the weekend in Barcelona”? Pasé el fin de semana en Barcelona. (pass-ay el fin dey sem-arn-er en bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er) Time to steal some words! Word Robbery Number 1 Let’s forget our weekend in Barcelona for just one moment now and start stealing some words.Around half the words in modern English have come into our language via Latin languages, such as Spanish. Once you can identify them, you will have a large, instant, usable vocabulary in Spanish. And after all, why bother learning Spanish vocabulary when you can simply steal it! The first group of words we are going to steal are words that end in “ic” and “ical” in English. Words like “romantic”, “exotic”, “illogical”, “typical” and so on. There are around 750 of these in English and they are largely similar in Spanish, except that in Spanish they end in “ico” (pronounced “ick-oh”), becoming “romántico”, “exótico”, “ilógico”, “típico” and so on. Let’s now see how we can work these into our weekend in Barcelona and expand our range of expressions in Spanish! Words stolen so far 750 Bearing in mind what we’ve just learnt in the Word Robbery above, let’s try changing the “ic” on the end of the English word “romantic” into “ico”. Doing this, what will “romantic” be in Spanish? romántico (roe-man-tick-oh) And so what would “exotic” be in Spanish? exótico (ex-ot-ick-oh) Let’s now try doing the same with “ical”. Change the “ical” on the end of “typical” into “ico”. Doing this, what will “typical” be in Spanish? típico (tip-ick-oh) And what will “political” be? político (po-li-tick-oh) Let’s now try using these “ico” words to expand our range of expressions and to make some more complex sentences in Spanish. “It was” in Spanish is: Fue (fway) So, how would you say “it was political”? Fue político. (fway po-li-tick-oh) And how would you say “it was typical”? Fue típico. (fway tip-ick-oh) How about “it was exotic”? Fue exótico. (fway ex-ot-ick-oh) And how do you think you would say “it was romantic”? Fue romántico. (fway roe-man-tick-oh) To say something is “lovely” in Spanish, you will say it is “adorable”. “Adorable” in Spanish is: adorable (ad-or-arb-lay) So, how would you say “It was lovely” / “It was adorable”? Fue adorable. (fway ad-or-arb-lay) Do you remember how to say “I visited” in Spanish? Visité (visit-ay) And do you remember how to say “I spent” (literally “I passed”)? Pasé (pass-ay) So how would you say “I spent August”? Pasé agosto (pass-ay a-gost-oh) And what is “in Barcelona” in Spanish? en Barcelona (en bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er) So how would you say “I spent August in Barcelona”? Pasé agosto en Barcelona. (pass-ay a-gost-oh en bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er) What was “the weekend” (literally “the end of week”) in Spanish? el fin de semana (el fin dey sem-arn-er) So how would you say “I spent the weekend in Barcelona”? Pasé el fin de semana en Barcelona. (pass-ay el fin dey sem-arn-er en bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er) Now again, what was “lovely” in Spanish? adorable (ad-or-arb-lay) And do you remember how to say “it was”? fue (fway) So how would you say “it was lovely”? Fue adorable. (fway ad-or-arb-lay) The word for “and” in Spanish is: y (ee) So, how would you say “…and it was lovely”? …y fue adorable (ee fway ad-or-arb-lay) Now, putting what you’ve learnt together, say “I spent the weekend in Barcelona… and it was lovely.” Take your time to work this out, bit by bit, there’s no rush! Pasé el fin de semana en Barcelona… y fue adorable. (pass-ay el fin dey sem-arn-er en bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er… ee fway ad-or-arb-lay) So, you can now construct the sentence with which we started the chapter – and, as you will soon discover, this is just the very beginning of your journey into Spanish! Building Blocks You just learnt how to say (amongst other things) “I spent the weekend in Barcelona… and it was lovely”. Having done this, we are now going to move on to expanding what you can say through the use of additional “building blocks”. The new building blocks you are going to learn will allow you to begin instantly expanding your range of expressions in the Spanish language. So far, some of the building blocks you have already learnt include: You already know how to use these building blocks to construct a sentence. So, once again, how would you say “I spent the weekend in Barcelona”? As you can see, you already know how to build the three building blocks above into a sentence. Take a look now at six new building blocks below. Just have a glance over them and then I’ll show you how we’re going to add these into the mix of what we’ve learnt so far. * literally “the Christmas” So, here we have six new building blocks to play with. Now, first things first: please don’t to try to memorise them. No, no, no! Instead, I simply want you to play with your building blocks. After all, that’s what building blocks are for, isn’t it? The way you’re going to play with them is like this: on the next page, they have been put in three piles and all I want you to do is to make sentences with them. You’ll do this by each time using one building block from the first pile, one from the second, and one from the third. You will find that you can say a lot of different things using them in this way and it’s up to you what sentences you make. The only thing I want you to make sure you do is to use every building block at least once. Also, please don’t bother writing down the sentences you make. Instead, say them out loud, or, if you’re not in a place where you can do this, say them in your head. Now, off you go; make as many sentences as you can! The Checklist You have now reached the final part of Chapter 1. Once you have finished this short section, you will not only have completed your first chapter but you will also understand how this book works as the other chapters follow the same pattern, with your Spanish getting ever more sophisticated as you complete each chapter. The section you are now on will be the final part of each chapter and is what I call “The Checklist”. It involves nothing more than a read-through of a selection of some of the words or expressions you have so far encountered. You will actually see The Checklist twice. The first time you will see that the Spanish words are written in black (on the left-hand side) and that the English words are written in orange (on the right-hand side) – and you know what orange means… cover up! So, what I want you to do here is to cover up the English words (which are written in orange on the right-hand side) while you read through the list of Spanish words on the left. Read through them all, from the top of the list to the bottom, and see if you can recall what they mean in English (uncover one orange word at a time to check if you’ve remembered the meaning correctly). If you can go through the entire list, giving the correct English meaning for each of the Spanish words / expressions without making more than three mistakes in total, then you’re done. If not, then go through the list again. Keep doing this, either working from the top of the list to the bottom or from the bottom to the top (it doesn’t matter which) until you can do it without making more than three mistakes. Got it? Then let’s go! Finished working through that checklist and made less than three mistakes?Yes? Wonderful! As that’s the case, what I want you to do now is to repeat exactly the same process again below, except that this time you’ll be reading through the English and trying to recall the Spanish. So, it will be the other way around. So, just relax and work your way up and down the list until you can give the correct Spanish translation for each of the English words / expressions again without making more than three mistakes in total. It’s not a competition – and I’m not asking you to memorise them. Just look at the English words (on the left-hand side) while you cover up the orange Spanish words on the right-hand side and see if you can remember how to say them in Spanish.You’ll be surprised by how much you get right, even on the first try. Okay, off you go! Well, that’s it, you’re done with Chapter 1! Now, don’t try to hold onto or remember anything you’ve learnt here. Everything you learn in earlier chapters will be brought up again and reinforced in later chapters.You don’t need to do anything extra or make any effort to memorise anything. The book has been organised so that it does that for you. Now, off you go and have a rest.You’ve earned it! Between Chapters Tip! Between chapters, I’m going to be giving you various tips on language learning. These will range from useful tips about the Spanish language itself to advice on how to fit learning a language in with your daily routine. Ready for the first one? Here it is! Tip Number One – study (at least a little) every day! Learning a language is like building a fire – if you don’t tend to it, it will go out. So, once you have decided to learn a foreign language, you really should study it every day. It doesn’t have to be for a long time though. Just five or ten minutes each day will be enough, so long as you keep it up. Doing these five or ten minutes will stop you forgetting what you’ve already learnt and, over time, will let you put more meat on the bones of what you’re learning. As for what counts towards those five or ten minutes, well that’s up to you. Whilst you’re working with this book, I would recommend that your five or ten minutes should be spent here learning with me. Once you’re done here, however, your five or ten minutes could be spent reading a Spanish newspaper, watching a Spanish film, or chatting with a Spanish-speaking acquaintance.You could even attend a class if you want to learn in a more formal setting. The important thing, though, is to make sure that you do a little every day. CHAPTER 2 I booked a table, ordered dinner and then paid the bill. What did you do? I booked a table, ordered dinner and then paid the bill. What did you do? The first chapter has shown you that you can learn how to create full and complex sentences in Spanish with relative ease. It also began to show you how you can convert huge numbers of English words into Spanish and then start using them straight away. We will be doing more of both here, which will allow you to make enormous strides with your Spanish in an incredibly short space of time. Let’s begin by carrying out a second Word Robbery… Time to steal some words! Word Robbery Number 2 The second group of words we are going to steal are words that end in “ion” and “ation”.Words that end in “ation” in English usually end in “ación” in Spanish. Take a look: Words such as: There are more than 1250 “ion” words in English and they are related to similar words in Spanish, as you can see above; we can start using these in Spanish right now. Adding them to the words we’ve already stolen so far, we have now reached a total of 2000 words stolen – and we’re only on Chapter 2! Words stolen so far2000 So, we’ve carried out our second Word Robbery and have gained more than 1000 words ending in “ion” and “ation” and it only took us 30 seconds to “learn” them. Now, words ending in “ation” in English actually come with yet another benefit. Not only can we steal them to use in Spanish in the way shown above, but we can also use them to make the past tense in Spanish. Let me show you how. We’ll take “reservación” (reservation) as an example. The first thing we’re going to do with “reservación” is to cut off the “ación” at the end. Do this now – what are you left with? reserv (re-surv) Good. Now, onto the end of this, I want you to add “é” (pronounced “ay”). Doing so, what does that give you? reservé (re-surv-ay) This means “I reserved”. So, by simply adding the letter “é” (pronounced “ay” – just like it is on the end of the English word “café”) we have accessed the past tense in Spanish. Now, let’s try doing this again, this time with the word “invitación”. Once more, cut off the “ación” from the end of the word and replace it with the “é” you find at the end of the word “café”. What do you get? invité (in-vit-ay) This means “I invited”. Let’s try this one more time, as the more practice you get, the easier it will become. We’ll take the word “preparación” as our starting point this time. Again, cut off the “ación” from the end and add an “é” in its place. What does that give you? preparé (pre-par-ay) This means “I prepared”. “The dinner” in Spanish is: la cena (la say-ner / thay-ner) So, how would you say “I prepared the dinner”? Preparé la cena. (pre-par-ay la say-ner / thay-ner) Alright, let’s return again to our 1250 “ation” words for a moment. Once more, what was “reservation” in Spanish? reservación (re-surv-ass-ee-on / re-surv-ath-ee-on) Now, as before, let’s cut the “ación” off the end of “reservación” and replace it with the “é” from “café” to create the word that means “reserved” in Spanish. So, doing that, what is “reserved”? reservé (re-surv-ay) And this actually means both “reserved” and “booked”. So, how would you say, “I reserved” / “I booked”? Reservé (re-surv-ay) “A table” in Spanish is: una mesa (oon-er may-ser) So, how would you say “I reserved a table” / “I booked a table”? Reservé una mesa. (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser) “For you” in Spanish is: para usted (pa-ra oo-stedd) So, how would you say “I reserved a table for you” / “I booked a table for you”? Reservé una mesa para usted. (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser pa-ra oo-stedd) And again, what was “the dinner” in Spanish? la cena (la say-ner / thay-ner) And what was “for you”? para usted (pa-ra oo-stedd) So, if “para usted” means “for you”, what do you think is the word for “for” in Spanish? para (pa-ra) Now, to say “for dinner” in Spanish, you will literally say “for the dinner”. How do you think you would say that? para la cena (pa-ra la say-ner / thay-ner) And so how would you say “I reserved a table for dinner” / “I booked a table for dinner”? Reservé una mesa para la cena. (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser pa-ra la say-ner / thay-ner) As you can see, these “ation” / “ación” words really are very useful. Not only do you get more than 1000 words right away – like “reservation” (reservación), “preparation” (preparación), “information” (información), and so on – for free but these “ation” words also give you access to the past tense in Spanish, allowing you to create many, many new words such as “reserved”, “prepared”, “informed”, and so on. And we achieve this simply by cutting off the “ation” / “ación” from the end of the word and adding an “é” in its place. We can even create new words in some quite unexpected ways using this technique. For instance, “ordination” in Spanish is: ordenación (or-den-ass-ee-on / or-den-ath-ee-on) And so, cutting off the “ación” and replacing it with the “é” from “café”, what would “I ordained” be in Spanish? Ordené (or-den-ay) Now, you are probably asking yourself “why on earth am I being taught the words for ‘ordination’ and ‘I ordained’?” Well, the word “ordination” / “ordenación” actually refers to “the granting of holy orders” and, even more literally, means something simpler still like “ordering”. When you cut off the “ación” from the end of “ordenación” and add the “é” from “café” in its place, you end up with the Spanish word that means not only “I ordained” but also “I ordered”. So, now that you know this, how could you say in Spanish “I ordered dinner”? Ordené la cena. (or-den-ay la say-ner / thay-ner) “Soup” in Spanish is: sopa (soap-er) So how would you say “I ordered soup”? Ordené sopa. (or-den-ay soap-er) And once again how would you say “for dinner” (literally “for the dinner”) in Spanish? para la cena (pa-ra la say-ner / thay-ner) Now put these two things together and say “I ordered soup for dinner”. Ordené sopa para la cena. (or-den-ay soap-er pa-ra la say-ner / thay-ner) And how would you say “I ordered soup for you”? Ordené sopa para usted. (or-den-ay soap-er pa-ra oo-stedd) Good, now can you recall how to say “I visited”? Visité (visit-ay) How about “I spent”? Pasé (pass-ay) “I reserved” / “I booked”? Reservé (re-surv-ay) “I prepared”? Preparé (pre-par-ay) “I ordered”? Ordené (or-den-ay) “I paid” in Spanish is: Pagué (pag-ay) “The bill” in Spanish is literally “the addition”, which in Spanish is: la cuenta (la kwen-ta) So how would you say “I paid the bill”? Pagué la cuenta. (pag-ay la kwen-ta) Again, how would you say “I booked a table”? Reservé una mesa. (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser) What about “I ordered dinner”? Ordené la cena. (or-den-ay la say-ner / thay-ner) And again what was “I paid the bill”? Pagué la cuenta. (pag-ay la kwen-ta) Let’s now try making a list out of these things.We’ll start by saying “I booked a table, ordered dinner, paid the bill.” Take your time working it out in your head, bit by bit – there really is no rush! So again “I booked a table, ordered dinner, paid the bill”: Reservé una mesa, ordené la cena, pagué la cuenta. (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser, or-den-ay la say-ner / thay-ner, pag-ay la kwen-ta) Let’s add “then” into this sentence to make it sound more natural. “Then” in Spanish is: luego (loo-way-go) First try simply saying “then paid the bill”. How would you say that? luego pagué la cuenta (loo-way-go pag-ay la kwen-ta) And what was “and” in Spanish? y (ee) So now say “and then paid the bill”. y luego pagué la cuenta (ee loo-way-go pag-ay la kwen-ta) Okay, let’s try to put this all together and say “I booked a table, ordered dinner and then paid the bill.” Reservé una mesa, ordené la cena y luego pagué la cuenta. (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser, or-den-ay la say-ner / thay-ner ee loo-way-go pag-ay la kwen-ta) Not a bad sentence. Let’s make it bigger still. Again, what is “I spent”? Pasé (pass-ay) And do you remember what “you spent” is, from the “Building Blocks” section in Chapter 1? Pasó (pass-o) So, as you can see, when you want to say “I…” did something in the past you add “é” onto the end of the word but when you want to say “you…” did something in the past you instead add this “ó” which we can see on the end of “you spent” above – pasó. Now, how do you say “I prepared” in Spanish? Preparé (pre-par-ay) So, how do you think would you say “you prepared”? Preparó (pre-par-o) So, just as with “you spent”, there is this “ó” on the end, whereas when you say “I spent”, “I prepared”, and so on, there will be an “é” on the end. To remember which way around these work, simply think to yourself “I need an ‘é’ when I talk about ‘mé’ in the past, but an ‘ó’ when I talk about ‘yóu’”. Now, if you want to say “what did you prepare?” in Spanish, it’s very simple. All you need to say is “what you prepared?”. “What” in Spanish is: Qué (kay) Now again, how would you say “I prepared” in Spanish? Preparé (pre-par-ay) And what about “you prepared”? Preparó (pre-par-o) And how would you say “What”? Qué (kay) So, how would you say “what did you prepare?” (literally “what you prepared?”)? ¿Qué preparó? (kay pre-par-o) And what is “I reserved” / “I booked” in Spanish? Reservé (re-surv-ay) So how would you say “you reserved” / “you booked”? Reservó (re-surv-o) So how would you say “what did you reserve?” (literally “what you reserved?”)? ¿Qué reservó? (kay re-surv-o) Now, you’ll have noticed that, when I’ve taught you things like “you reserved”, “you prepared”, “you spent”, and so on, there are two words in English but in Spanish I’ve only given you one.You may even have wondered to yourself “where’s the ‘you’?”. Well, in Spanish, there is a separate word for “you” that you could add to these sentences if you wanted to but you don’t normally need to. This is because, in Spanish, “reservó” by itself means “you reserved” and “preparó” by itself means “you prepared” and “pasó” by itself means “you spent”. Each of these words has an “ó” on the end of them, so you know that the person means “you”. However, sometimes in Spanish you may wish to emphasise the word “you” more strongly. Perhaps, for example, you are moaning at someone about something they have done and want to say “you did this” or “it was you who prepared the dinner – and it’s terrible”. At these times, when you want to really emphasise the word “you”, then you should include the word itself. So, first of all, how have we so far learnt to say “you reserved” in Spanish? Reservó (re-surv-o) If you don’t want to place any special, strong emphasis on the word “you”, this is the way you will normally say “you reserved” in Spanish. However, if we want to add more emphasis, we can add the word that means “you” into the sentence. The word for “you” in Spanish is: usted (oo-sted) So, now try saying “you reserved”: Usted reservó (oo-sted re-surv-o) So, the meaning is still essentially the same but there is a stronger emphasis on the word “you”. How would you say, again with emphasis, “you spent”? Usted pasó (oo-sted pass-o) What about “you prepared”? Usted preparó (oo-sted pre-par-o) If you want to turn this into a question and say “did you prepare?”, then all you need to do is reverse the word order and say literally “prepared you?”. Do that now: ¿Preparó usted? (pre-par-o oo-sted) Again, how would you say “what” in Spanish? ¿Qué? (kay) If you want to ask “what did you prepare?” you will simply say “what prepared you?” How would you say that? ¿Qué preparó usted? (kay pre-par-o oo-sted) “You did” in Spanish is hizo (ee-soe / ee-thoe) So, how would you add more emphasis to this and say “you did”? Usted hizo (oo-sted ee-soe / ee-thoe) Turn this into a question now and ask “did you do?” (literally “did you?”): ¿Hizo usted? (ee-soe / ee-thoe oo-sted) How would you say “what did you do?” (literally “what did you?”)? ¿Qué hizo usted? (kay ee-soe / ee-thoe oo-sted) And once more, how would you say “I reserved a table” / “I booked a table”? Reservé una mesa. (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser) And how would you say “I ordered dinner”? Ordené la cena. (or-den-ay la say-ner / thay-ner) And remind me, what was the word for “then” in Spanish? luego (loo-way-go) And the word for “and”? y (ee) So, now say “and then paid the bill”. y luego pagué la cuenta (ee loo-way-go pag-ay la kwen-ta) And let’s put those bits together again and say “I booked a table, ordered dinner and then paid the bill.” Reservé una mesa, ordené la cena y luego pagué la cuenta. (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser, or-den-ay la say-ner / thay-ner ee loo-way-go pag-ay la kwen-ta) And let’s add the final bit onto it all. Again, how would you say “What?” ¿Qué? (kay) And how would you say “What did you do?” (literally “what did you?”)? ¿Qué hizo usted? (kay ee-soe / ee-thoe oo-sted) Now let’s combine absolutely everything together and (taking your time to think it out) say “I booked a table, ordered dinner and then paid the bill.What did you do?” Reservé una mesa, ordené la cena y luego pagué la cuenta. ¿Qué hizo usted? (re-surv-ay oon-er may-ser, or-den-ay la say-ner / thay-ner, ee loo-way-go pag-ay la kwen-ta. kay ee-soe / ee-thoe oo-sted) How did you find that final, complex sentence? Try it a few more times, even if you’ve got it right, until you feel comfortable constructing it. Every time you practise building these long sentences, the naturalness and fluidity of your spoken Spanish will improve and your confidence in speaking the language will rise along with it. Building Blocks 2 It’s time to add some new building blocks to the mix. As before, it will be just six new ones. Here they are: * literally “a habitation” Once more, these new building blocks have been put into three piles below and what I want you to do is to again make sentences with them, each time using one building block from the first pile, one from the second, and one from the third. Make as many as you can! Checklist 2 You have now reached your second checklist. Remember, don’t skip anything! The checklists are essential if you want what you’ve learnt to remain in your memory for the long term. So again, cover up the English words on the right-hand side while you read through the list of Spanish words on the left, trying to recall what they mean in English. If you can go through the entire list, giving the correct English meaning for each of the Spanish words / expressions without making more than three mistakes in total, then you’re done. If not, then go through the list again. Keep doing this, either working from the top of the list to the bottom or from the bottom to the top (it doesn’t matter which) until you can do it without making more than three mistakes. Okay. Ready, set, go! Now, do the same thing again below, except that this time you’ll be reading through the list of English words and trying to recall the Spanish. All you need to do is to be able to do one full read-through of them without making more than three mistakes in total and you’re done! Well, that’s it, you’re done with Chapter 2! Remember, don’t try to hold onto or remember anything you’ve learnt here. Everything you learn in earlier chapters will be brought back up and reinforced in later chapters.You don’t need to do anything or make any effort to memorise anything. The book has been organised in such a way that it will do that for you. So, off you go now and have a rest, please! Between Chapters Tip! Stop while you’re still enjoying it! Arnold Schwarzenegger once said that the key to his body-building success was that he stopped his work-out each day just before it started to get boring. On the few occasions he went past that point, he found it incredibly hard to return to the gym again the next day – and he loved working out. So, as you will almost certainly recall, Tip 1 suggested that you should study every day – which you definitely should do if you can. But that doesn’t mean that you should overdo it. So, if you’re not really in the mood, just do five minutes. If you are in the mood, though, don’t push yourself too hard. Stop before you get to the point where it doesn’t feel fun any longer. Best to leave yourself feeling hungry for more rather than bloated and fed up! CHAPTER 3 I’m scared of flying, so I’m planning to take the Eurostar. I’m scared of flying, so I’m planning to take the Eurostar. The brief conversation above does not seem complicated in English and yet, even if you have studied Spanish before, you might well find it impossible to know exactly where to begin in order to express all of this in Spanish. By the end of this chapter, you will have learnt how to carry out both sides of this conversation, plus a great deal more. Let’s begin! “I have” in Spanish is: Tengo (ten-go) Now, do you remember from the previous Building Blocks section, what “a room” (literally “a habitation”) is in Spanish? una habitación (oon-er ab-it-ass-ee-on / ab-it-ath-ee-on) So, how would you say “I have a room”? Tengo una habitación. (ten-go oon-er ab-it-ass-ee-on / ab-it-ath-ee-on) What is “for this evening” in Spanish? para esta noche (pa-ra es-ta noch-ay) So how would you say “I have a room for this evening”? Tengo una habitación para esta noche. (ten-go oon-er ab-it-ass-ee-on / ab-it-ath-ee-on pa-ra es-ta noch-ay) Now again, what is “I reserved” or “I booked”? Reservé (re-surv-ay) And how would you say “I reserved a room” / “I booked a room”? Reservé una habitación. (re-surv-ay oon-er ab-it-ass-ee-on / ab-it-ath-ee-on) “I reserved” or “I booked” is “reservé”. “To reserve” or “to book” in Spanish is: reservar (re-surv-ar) So how would you say “to reserve a room” / “to book a room”? reservar una habitación (re-surv-ar oon-er ab-it-ass-ee-on / ab-it-ath-ee-on) Now again, what is “I have” in Spanish? Tengo (ten-go) “The intention” in Spanish is: la intención (la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on) So, how would you say “I have the intention”? Tengo la intención (ten-go la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on) The word for “of ” in Spanish is: de (dey) So, how would you say “I have the intention of ”? Tengo la intención de (ten-go la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on dey) Now, saying “I have the intention of ” is actually one way of saying “I’m planning to…” in Spanish. With this in mind, how would you say “I’m planning to book a room” (literally “I have the intention of to book a room”)? Tengo la intención de reservar una habitación. (ten-go la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on dey re-surv-ar oon-er ab-it-ass-ee-on / ab-it-ath-ee-on) And how about “I’m planning to book a room for this evening”? Tengo la intención de reservar una habitación para esta noche. (ten-go la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on dey re-surv-ar oon-er ab-it-ass-ee-on / ab-it-ath-ee-on pa-ra es-ta noch-ay) What is “a table” in Spanish? una mesa (oon-er may-ser) So how would you say “I’m planning to book a table for this evening” (literally “I have the intention of to reserve a table for this evening”)? Tengo la intención de reservar una mesa para esta noche. (ten-go la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on dey re-surv-ar oon-er may-ser pa-ra es-ta noch-ay) “To go back” in Spanish is: volver (vol-vair) Now “volver” (to go back) may at first look like a totally unfamiliar word to you but actually it isn’t.You can in fact see it inside the English word “revolver” for example. And also, part of it, inside the word “revolving”. And, if you think about both a revolving door, or the part of a revolver that holds the bullets, both of these turn around and eventually go back to where they began. So, volver, to go back – to revolve back to where you started. Now that you know that “to go back” is “volver”, how would you say “I’m planning to go back”? Tengo la intención de volver. (ten-go la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on dey vol-vair) “To Spain” is: a España (a es-pan-ya) And so how would you say “I’m planning to go back to Spain”? Tengo la intención de volver a España. (ten-go la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on dey vol-vair a es-pan-ya) “In May” in Spanish is: en mayo (en my-oh) So, how would you say, “I’m planning to go back to Spain in May”? Tengo la intención de volver a España en mayo. (ten-go la in-ten-see-on / in-ten-thee-on dey vol-vair a es-pan-ya en my-oh) So, in Spanish, to say “I’m planning to…” we can simply use “I have the intention of…”. This is an extremely useful expression and actually is just one of a number of extremely useful expressions that work in more or less the same way. For example, if you want to say “I feel like…” or “I fancy…” in Spanish, you will say “I have desire of…” which in Spanish is: Tengo ganas de (ten-go ga-nas dey) Knowing this now, how would you say “I feel like going back to Spain in May” / “I fancy going back to Spain in May” (literally “I have desire of to go back to Spain in May”)? Tengo ganas de volver a España en mayo. (ten-go ga-nas dey vol-vair a es-pan-ya en my-oh) What is “September” in Spanish? septiembre (sep-tee-em-brey) So how would you say “in September”? en septiembre (en sep-tee-em-brey) And how would you say “I feel like going back to Spain in September” / “I fancy going back to Spain in September” (literally “I have desire of to go back to Spain in September”)? Tengo ganas de volver a España en septiembre. (ten-go ga-nas dey vol-vair a es-pan-ya en sep-tee-em-brey) And once again, what is “to Spain”? a España (a es-pan-ya) And so how would you say “to Barcelona”? a Barcelona (a bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er) And how would you say “I feel like going back to Barcelona” / “I fancy going back to Barcelona”? Tengo ganas de volver a Barcelona. (ten-go ga-nas dey vol-vair a bar-sair-loan-er / bar-thair-loan-er) You have now learnt two phrases that are constructed in a similar way. The first uses the words “I have the intention of…” to express “I’m planning to…” and the other uses the words “I have desire of…” to mean “I feel like…” or “I fancy…”. Let’s add another similar expression to this mix. But again, don’t worry about trying to memorise any of this. As you work your way through the rest of the chapter, you’ll find that everything comes up again and again, jolting your memory each time and helping those words and phrases stick without resorting to memorisation or learning by rote. Конец ознакомительного фрагмента. Текст предоставлен ООО «ЛитРес». Прочитайте эту книгу целиком, купив полную легальную версию (https://www.litres.ru/paul-noble-2/unlocking-spanish-with-paul-noble-your-key-to-language-succes/?lfrom=334617187) на ЛитРес. 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